Bibliografía Webster




The denunciation of the Talmud by the Jew Pfefferkorn in 1509 and the
ex-Rabbi Drach in 1844 have been quoted in the course of this book.
Graetz however, in his _History of the Jews_, quotes an earlier incident
of this kind.[864] In the thirteenth century a converted Jew and former
Talmudist Donin who, on his baptism, assumed the name of Nicholas,
presented himself before the Pope, Gregory IX, "and brought charges
against the Talmud, saying that it distorted the words of Holy Writ, and
in the Agadic portions of it there were to be found disgraceful
representations of God," that it contained many gross errors and
absurdities, further that "it was filled with abuse against the founder
of the Christian religion and the Virgin. Donin demonstrated that it was
the Talmud which prevented the Jews from accepting Christianity, and
that without it they would certainly have abandoned their state of
unbelief." Again "he stated that the Talmudical writings taught it was a
meritorious action to kill the best man among the Christians[865] ...
that it was lawful to deceive a Christian without any scruple; that it
was permitted to Jews to break a promise made on oath." These Graetz
describes as lying charges.

The Jews were accordingly ordered by the Pope to hand over all their
copies of the Talmud to the Dominicans and Franciscans for examination,
and if their judgment should corroborate the charges of Nicholas Donin,
they were to burn the volumes of the Talmud (June 9, 1239).

In France Graetz goes on to relate that "the priest-ridden and
weak-minded Louis IX"--that is to say, Saint Louis--pursued the same
course. "The Talmud was put on its trial. Four distinguished Rabbis of
North France were commanded by the King to hold a public disputation
with Nicholas, either to refute the imputations levelled against the
Talmud, or to make confession of the abuse against Christianity and the
blasphemies against God that it contained."

It is impossible to imagine a fairer decision, and the queen-mother,
Blanche de Castille, was careful to assure the first witness summoned
that if the lives of the Rabbis were in danger she would protect them
and that he was only required to answer the questions that would be
asked of him. Now, there would have been nothing simpler than for the
Rabbis to admit honestly that these offensive passages existed, that
they had been written perhaps in moments of passion in a less
enlightened age, that they recognized the indelicacy of insulting the
religion of the country in which they lived, and that therefore such
passages should henceforth be deleted. But instead of adopting this
straightforward course, which might have put an end for ever to attacks
on the book they held sacred, the Rabbis proceeded to deny the existence
of the "alleged blasphemous and immoral expressions" and to declare that
"the odious facts related in the Talmud concerning a Jesus, the son of
Pantheras, had no reference to Jesus of Nazareth, but to one of a
similar name who had lived long before him." Graetz, who admits that
this was an error and that the passages in question did relate to the
Jesus of the Christians, represents the Rabbis as being merely "misled"
on the question. But the King, who was not misled by the Rabbis, ordered
all copies of the Talmud to be burnt, and in June 1242 these were
committed to the flames.[866]

The Talmud, however, continued to exist, and it was not until 1640 that,
as we have already seen, the offending passages against Christ were
expunged by the Rabbis as a measure of expediency. Now that they have
been replaced, no further attempt is made to deny that they refer to the
founder of Christianity. As far as I am aware they are not included in
any English translation of the Talmud, but may be found in an English
version of Dr. Gustav H. Dalman's book, _Jesus Christus im Talmud_



Contrary to the assertions of certain writers, I have never affirmed my
belief in the authenticity of the Protocols, but have always treated it
as an entirely open question.[867] The only opinion to which I have
committed myself is that, whether genuine or not, the Protocols do
represent the programme of world revolution, and that in view of their
prophetic nature and of their extraordinary resemblance to the protocols
of certain secret societies in the past, they were either the work of
some such society or of someone profoundly versed in the lore of secret
societies who was able to reproduce their ideas and phraseology.

The so-called refutation of the Protocols which appeared in the _Times_
of August 1922, tends to confirm this opinion. According to these
articles the Protocols were largely copied from the book of Maurice
Joly, _Dialogues aux Enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu_, published
in 1864. Let it be said at once that the resemblance between the two
works could not be accidental, not only are whole paragraphs almost
identical, but the various points in the programme follow each other in
precisely the same order. But whether Nilus copied from Joly or _from
the same source whence Joly derived his ideas_ is another question. It
will be noticed that Joly in his preface never claimed to have
originated the scheme described in his book; on the contrary he
distinctly states that it "personifies in particular a political system
which has not varied for a single day in its application since the
disastrous and alas! too far-off date of its enthronement." Could this
refer only to the government of Napoleon III, established twelve years
earlier? Or might it not be taken to signify a Machiavellian system of
government of which Napoleon III was suspected by Joly at this moment of
being the exponent? We have already seen that this system is said by M.
de Mazères, in his book _De Machiavel et de l'influence de sa doctrine
sur les opinions, les moeurs et la politique de la France pendant la
Révolution_, published in 1816, to have been inaugurated by the French
Revolution, and to have been carried on by Napoleon I against whom he
brings precisely the same accusations of Machiavellism that Joly brings
against Napoleon III. "The author of _The Prince_," he writes, "was
always his guide," and he goes on to describe the "parrot cries placed
in the mouths of the people," the "hired writers, salaried newspapers,
mercenary poets and corrupt ministers employed to mislead our vanity
methodically"--all this being carried on by "the scholars of Machiavelli
under the orders of his cleverest disciple." We have already traced the
course of these methods from the Illuminati onwards.

Now precisely at the moment when Joly published his _Dialogues aux
Enfers_ the secret societies were particularly active, and since by this
date a number of Jews had penetrated into their ranks a whole crop of
literary efforts directed against Jews and secret societies marked the
decade. Eckert with his work on Freemasonry in 1852 had given the
incentive; Crétineau Joly followed in 1859 with _L'Eglise Romaine en
face de la Révolution_, reproducing the documents of the Haute Vente
Romaine; in 1868 came the book of the German anti-Semite Goedsche, and
in the following year on a higher plane the work of Gougenot Des
Mousseaux, _Le Juif, le Judaïsme, et la Judaïsation des Peuples
Chrétiens_. Meanwhile in 1860 the _Alliance Israëlite Universelle_ had
arisen, having for its ultimate object "the great work of humanity, the
annihilation of error and fanaticism, the union of human society in a
faithful and solid fraternity"--a formula singularly reminiscent of
Grand Orient philosophy; in 1864 Karl Marx obtained control of the
two-year-old "International Working Men's Association," by which a
number of secret societies became absorbed, and in the same year Bakunin
founded his _Alliance Sociale Démocratique_ on the exact lines of
Weishaupt's Illuminism, and in 1869 wrote his _Polémique contre les
Juifs_ (or _Etude sur les Juifs allemands_) mainly directed against the
Jews of the _Internationale_. The sixties of the last century therefore
mark an important era in the history of the secret societies, and it was
right in the middle of this period that Maurice Joly published his book.

Now it will be remembered that amongst the sets of parallels to the
Protocols quoted by me in _World Revolution_, two were taken from the
sources above quoted--the documents of the Haute Vente Romaine and the
programme of Bakunin's secret society, the _Alliance Sociale
Démocratique_. Meanwhile Mr. Lucien Wolf had found another parallel to
the Protocols in Goedsche's book. "The Protocols," Mr. Wolf had no
hesitation in asserting, "are, in short, an amplified imitation of
Goedsche's handiwork"[868] and he went on to show that "Nilus followed
this pamphlet very closely." The Protocols were then declared by Mr.
Wolf and his friends to have been completely and finally refuted.

But alas for Mr. Wolfe's discernment! The _Times_ articles came and
abolished the whole of his carefully constructed theory. They did not,
however, demolish mine; on the contrary, they supplied another and a
very curious link in the chain of evidence. For is it not remarkable
that one of the sets of parallels quoted by me appeared in the same year
as Joly's book, and that within the space of nine years no less than
four parallels to the Protocols should have been discovered? Let us
recapitulate the events of this decade in the form of a table and the
proximity of dates will then be more apparent:

1859. Crétineau Joly's book published containing documents of
Haute Vente Romaine (parallels quoted by me).

1860. _Alliance Israëlite Universelle_ founded.

1864. _1st Internationale_ taken over by Karl Marx.

" _Alliance Sociale Démocratique_ of Bakunin founded
(parallels quoted by me).
" Maurice Joly's _Dialogue aux Enfers_ published
(parallels quoted by _Times_).

1866. 1st Congress of Internationale at Geneva.

1868. Goedsche's _Biarritz_ (parallels quoted by Mr. Lucien

1869. Gougenot Des Mousseaux's _Le Juif_, etc.

" Bakunin's _Polémique contre les Juifs_.

It will be seen, then, that at the moment when Maurice Joly wrote his
_Dialogues_, the ideas they embodied were current in many different
circles. It is interesting, moreover, to notice that the authors of the
last two works referred to above, the Catholic and Royalist Des
Mousseaux and the Anarchist Bakunin, between whom it is impossible to
imagine any connexion, both in the same year denounced the growing power
of the Jews whom Bakunin described as "the most formidable sect" in
Europe, and again asserted that a leakage of information had taken place
in the secret societies. Thus in 1870 Bakunin explains that his secret
society has been broken up because its secrets have been given
away,[869] and that his colleague Netchaïeff has arrived at the
conclusion that "in order to found a serious and indestructible society
one must take for a basis the policy of Machiavelli."[870] Meanwhile
Gougenot Des Mousseaux had related in _Le Juif_, that in December 1865
he had received a letter from a German statesman saying:

Since the revolutionary recrudescence of 1848, I have had relations
with a Jew who, from vanity, betrayed the secret of the secret
societies with which he had been associated, and who warned me
eight or ten days beforehand of all the revolutions which were
about to break out at any point of Europe. I owe to him the
unshakeable conviction that all these movements of "oppressed
peoples," etc., etc., are devised by half a dozen individuals, who
give their orders to the secret societies of all Europe. The ground
is absolutely mined beneath our feet, and the Jews provide a large
contingent of these miners....[871]

These words were written in the year after the _Dialogues aux Enfers_
were published.

It is further important to notice that Joly's work is dated from Geneva,
the meeting-place for all the revolutionaries of Europe, including
Bakunin, who was there in the same year, and where the first Congress of
the _Internationale_ led by Karl Marx was held two years later. Already
the revolutionary camp was divided into warring factions, and the
rivalry between Marx and Mazzini had been superseded by the struggle
between Marx and Bakunin. And all these men were members of secret
societies. It is by no means improbable then that Joly, himself a
revolutionary, should during his stay in Geneva have come into touch
with the members of some secret organization, who may have betrayed to
him their own secret or those of a rival organization they had reason
to suspect of working under the cover of revolutionary doctrines for an
ulterior end. Thus the protocols of a secret society modelled on the
lines of the Illuminati or the Haute Vente Romaine may have passed into
his hands and been utilized by him as an attack on Napoleon who, owing
to his known connexion with the Carbonari, might have appeared to Joly
as the chief exponent of the Machiavellian art of duping the people and
using them as the lever to power which the secret societies had reduced
to a system.

This would explain Maurice Joly's mysterious reference to the "political
system which has not varied for a single day in its application since
the disastrous and alas! too far-off date of its enthronement."
Moreover, it would explain the resemblance between all the parallels to
the Protocols from the writings of the Illuminati and Mirabeau's _Projet
de Révolution_ of 1789 onwards. For if the system had never varied, the
code on which it was founded must have remained substantially the same.
Further, if it had never varied up to the time when Joly wrote, why
should it have varied since that date? The rules of lawn tennis drawn up
in 1880 would probably bear a strong resemblance to those of 1920, and
would also probably follow each other in the same sequence. The
differences would occur where modern improvements had been added.

Might not the same process of evolution have taken place between the
dates at which the works of Joly and Nilus were published? I do not
agree with the opinion of the _Morning Post_ that "the author of the
Protocols must have had the _Dialogues_ of Joly before him." It is
possible, but not proven. Indeed, I find it difficult to imagine that
anyone embarking on such an elaborate imposture should not have
possessed the wit to avoid quoting passages verbatim--without even
troubling to arrange them in a different sequence--from a book which
might at any moment be produced as evidence against him. For contrary to
the assertions of the _Times_ the _Dialogues_ of Joly is by no means a
rare book, not only was it to be found at the British Museum but at the
London Library and recently I was able to buy a copy for the modest sum
of 15 francs. There was therefore every possibility of Nilus being
suddenly confronted with the source of his plagiarism. Further, is it
conceivable that a plagiarist so unskilful and so unimaginative would
have been capable of improving on the original? For the Protocols are a
vast improvement on the _Dialogues_ of Joly. The most striking passages
they contain are not to be found in the earlier work, nor, which is more
remarkable, are several of the amazing prophecies concerning the future
which time has realized. It is this latter fact which presents the most
insuperable obstacle to the _Times_ solution of the problem.

To sum up then, the Protocols are either a mere plagiarism of Maurice
Joly's work, in which case the prophetic passages added by Nilus or
another remain unexplained, or they are a revised edition of the plan
communicated to Joly in 1864, brought up to date and supplemented so as
to suit modern conditions by the continuers of the plot.

Whether in this case the authors of the Protocols were Jews or whether
the Jewish portions have been interpolated by the people into whose
hands they fell is another question. Here we must admit the absence of
any direct evidence. An International circle of world revolutionaries
working on the lines of the Illuminati, of which the existence has
already been indicated, offers a perfectly possible alternative to the
"Learned Elders of Zion." It would be easier, however to absolve the
Jews from all suspicion of complicity if they and their friends had
adopted a more straightforward course from the time the Protocols
appeared. When some years ago a work of the same kind was directed
against the Jesuits, containing what purported to be a "Secret Plan" of
revolution closely resembling the Protocols,[872] the Jesuits indulged
in no invectives, made no appeal that the book should be burnt by the
common hangman, resorted to no fantastic explanations, but quietly
pronounced the charge to be a fabrication. Thus the matter ended.

But from the moment the Protocols were published the Jews and their
friends had recourse to every tortuous method of defence, brought
pressure to bear on the publishers--succeeded, in fact, in temporarily
stopping the sales--appealed to the Home Secretary to order their
suppression, concocted one clinching refutation after another, all
mutually exclusive of each other, so that by the time the solution now
pronounced to be the correct one appeared, we had already been assured
half a dozen times that the Protocols had been completely and finally
refuted. And when at last a really plausible explanation had been
discovered, why was it not presented in a convincing manner? All that
was necessary was to state that the origin of the Protocols had been
found in the work of Maurice Joly, giving parallels in support of this
assertion. What need to envelop a good case in a web of obvious romance?
Why all this parade of confidential sources of information, the pretence
that Joly's book was so rare as to be almost unfindable when a search in
the libraries would have proved the contrary? Why these allusions to
Constantinople as the place "to find the key to dark secrets," to the
mysterious Mr. X. who does not wish his real name to be known, and to
the anonymous ex-officer of the Okhrana from whom by mere chance he
bought the very copy of the _Dialogues_ used for the fabrication of the
Protocols by the Okhrana itself, although this fact was unknown to the
officer in question? Why, further, should Mr. X., if he were a Russian
landowner, Orthodox by religion and a Constitutional Monarchist, be so
anxious to discredit his fellow Monarchists by making the outrageous
assertion that "the only occult Masonic organization such as the
Protocols speak of"--that is to say, a Machiavellian system of an
abominable kind--which he had been able to discover in Southern Russia
"was a Monarchist one"?

It is evident then that the complete story of the Protocols has not yet
been told, and that much yet remains to be discovered concerning this
mysterious affair.


Abdullah ibn Maymun, 37, 197

Abraham, Book of, 8

"Abraham the Jew," 85

"Absolutes," the, 265

Adam, Book of (see _Codex Nasaræus_)

Adamites, the, 31

Additional Degrees, the 132-148

Akhnaton (see Ikh-naton)

Albigenses, the, 74-76

Alemanus (or Datylus), 85

_Aliance Sociale Démocratique_, 268, 295

Alsace, Jews of, 247

Alta Vendita (or Haute Vente Romaine), 266

Altotas, 174, 200

Amaury, King of Jerusalem, 50

Amèlie, Queen of Portugal, 283

_Amis Réunis_ (Loge des), 165, 170, 236

Ampthill, Lord, 287

Anabaptists, 180

Ancient Masonry, 304

Anderson's Constitutions, 129, 148

Anna of Courland, 165

Anthroposophical Society, 316

Antin, Duc d', 137 note, 145, 148, 155, 162

Antitacts, 31

Architecture, Gothic, 111

Aristobulos, 28

Athanasius, Kircher, 86

Ashkenazim, 247

Ashmole, Elias, 102, 122

Asiatic Brethren, 169

Assassins, the 44-48, 113

Ba'al Shems, 181, _et. seq._

Babeuf, 252

Bacon, Francis, 97, 119

Bacon, Roger, 143

Bakunin, Michel, 268, 384

Baldwin II, 49

Balsamo, Joseph (see Cagliostro)

Baphomet, 64, 72

Barbusse, H., 321

Baron, André, 188

Barruel, Abbé, vi, ix, 121, 147, 254, 382

Barthou, Monsieur, 203, 204

Bavaria, Duke of, 86

Bela Kun, 386

Belgium, Freemasonry in, 282

Belle-Isle, Maréchal de, 173

Bérage, Chevalier de, 139

Berckheim, François Charles de, 258, _et seq._

Besant, Mrs. Annie, 297, _et seq._

Bielfeld, Baron de, 152

Bismarck, Prince von, 356, 357, 366

Blanc, Louis, 268

Blavatsky, Madame, 298, _et seq._

Bode, Christian, 211, 233-234, 236, 255

Bogomils, 63, _et seq._

Bolshevism, 357, _et seq._, 384, _et seq._

Bordeaux Jews of, 246, 247

Bourbon, Duc de, 136, 137

Bourbon, Duchesse de, 295

Brinvilliers, Marquise de, 93

Bruce, Robert, 111, 112, 142

Brunswick, Duke of, 154, 191, 252, _et seq._, 350

Bullock, 314

Buonarotti, 252

Bussell, Dr. F. W., 50, 128

Cabala, the ancient, 111
-- the Jewish, 6, _et seq._;
origins of, 7 _et seq._; 71, 78, 81, 85, 86, 106, 107, 109, 110,
119, 124, 166, 181, 228, 318, 371, _et seq._

Cabalists, the Christian, 15, 85
-- the Jewish, ch. viii.

Cagliostro, 174, 191, 233, 235

Cainites, 30, 76

Cambacérès, Prince, 255

Carbonari, 266, 342, 351

Carlos, King of Portugal, 283

Carpocratians, the, 30, 31

Carvajal, 178

Catherine de Medicis, 79

Chambers, Ephraim, _Cyclopædia_, 161

Charles VI, King of France, 246

Charles Edward, Prince, 153, 154

Charter of Larmenius, 66, 135, 157

Chefdebien d'Armisson, Marquis de, 171, 234, 236, 256

Choiseul, Duc de, 172

"Christians of St. John" (see Mandæans)

Clarté, 321, 322

_Clavicules de Solomon_, 166

Clement V, 51, 53, 54, 59

Clement XII, 138

Coat-of-Anns of Grand Lodge, 123

_Codex Nasaræus_, 71

Co-Masonry, 301, _et seq._, 319

Compagnonnages, 108

Condorcet, Marquis de, 162, 171

_Confessia Fraternitatis_, 87

Copin Albancelli, Monsieur, 278, _et. seq._

Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim, 86

Cossé Brissac, Duc de, 150

"Council of the Emperors of the East," 149

Court de Gebelin, 171

Crémieux, Adolphe, 268

Croix, Madame de la, 194

Cromwell, Oliver, 125, 126, 179

Crowley, Aleister, 314, 315

Crypto-Jews, 178

D'Alembert, 161

Danton, 245

Darazi, Ismail, 43

Dar ul Hikmat, 40, 113

D'Aumont, Pierre, 111

Deraismes, Maria, 296

Derwentwater, Lord, 134

Dasmoulins, Camille, 245

Diderot, 160, 161

Disraeli, Benjamin, (Earl of Beaconsfield), 383

Drach, P.L.B., 11, 12, 14, 15, 402

Druses, 43, 44, 284

Duchanteau, 234

Eckhoffen, Baron von, 169

Edward II, 55, 111

Egyptian Rite, 174

_Einwohnerwehr_, 362

Eliphas Lévi, 60, 62, 65, 68, 77, 79, 83, 310

Elymas the sorcerer, 29

Emden, 186

Encausse, Dr. Gérard (see Papus)

_Encyclopédie_, 160-165

Engel, Leopold, 311

Ephrain, 249

_Ernst und Folk_, 191-195

Esperanto, 346

_Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_, 240, _et. seq._, 258

Essenes, the, 23-27, 110

Euchites, 76

Fabré Palaprat, 67, 68, 135

Falk, Hayyim Samuel Jacob, 185, _et. seq._

_Fama Fraternitatis_, 86

Fare, Monseigneur de la, 247

Fascismo, 282

Fatimites, 40

Felkin, Dr. R., 313-316

Fénélon, 144

Flamel, Nicholas, 85

Fleury, Cardinal, 137, 138

Florence, Secret Society at, 190, 191

Fludd, Robert, 84, 97, 121

Frank, Jacob (alias Baron von Offenbach), 182

Frankists, 182

Frederick the Great, 152, 156, 163-165, 206, 213, 366
-- and Freemasonry, 152, 156, 159, 160
-- and Voltaire, 157, 158

Freemasonry, origins of, ch. v
-- Grand Lodge Era of, ch. vi
-- Modern, ch. xi
-- British, 103, 126-131, 285-293
-- Grand Orient, 149, 273-285
-- -- and the Cabala, 105-110, 123
-- -- and the Essenes, 110
-- -- and the Roman Colelgia, 101, 108
-- -- and the _compagnonnages_, 110
-- in Belgium, 282
-- in Spain, 283
-- in Portugal, 283
-- in Hungary, 284
-- in Turkey, 284
-- and Templarism, 110-117, 138-142
-- and Rosicrucianism, 98, 119-122
-- and the Catholic Church, 272, 288
-- and women, 294-296
-- in Germany, 356
-- in France, 273-285

Galcerandus de Teus, 68

Gassner, 175

"German Union," 236

Gilles de Rais, 77-79

Ginsburg, Dr. Christian, 23-26

Gleichen, Baron de, 165, 189, 190

Gnostics, 27-32

Gobel, Archbishop, 249

Godefroi de Bouillon, 49, 139

Goldsmid, Aaron, 187

"Goose and Gridiron," 127, 128

Gordon, Lord George, 194

Goudchaux, Juliet, 193

Gougenot des Mousseaux, 10, 11, 381

Grand Chapitre Général de France, 150

Grand Orient, 149, 160, 171, 273, _et. seq._, 303, 304, 323, 352, 384

Grand Orient of Italy, 284

Granjo, Dr. Antonio, 283

Great Rebellion, 178

Grégoire, Abbé, 69

Hakim, 43

Hamburg, Grand Lodge of, 133-152

"Harnouester," Lord, 145

Hartmann, Franz, 316

Hasan and Husein, 35

Hasan Saba (The Old Man of the Mountain), 44-48

Hashishyin (see Assassins)

Hasidim, 182, _et. seq._

Heguerty, Squire, 134

Heilprin (Joel ben Uri), 182

Heindl, Max, 317

Helvétius, 162

Heredom, 112

Hertz, David Moses, 169

Herz, Henrietta, 230

Hesse, Prince Charles of, 125, 129, 154, 171

Heydon, John, 97

Hiram Abiff, 106-108, 110, 164

Hiram, King of Tyre, 106

_Hiram or the Grand Master Key_, 130

Hiramic legend, 106, 107, 110, 217

Holbach, Baron d', 162

Horos, Mme, 314

Hugues de Pavens, 49, 66, 67

Hundt, Baron von, 153, 154, 157

"Idealists," 265

Ikhnaton (or Akhnaton), 6, 297

Illuminati, Bavarian, ch. ix and x, 350
-- Modern Order of, 311

_Illuminés d'Avignon_, 166

_Illuminés, French_ (_Martinistes_), 165-176, 233, 310

_Illuminés Théosophes_, 166

_In Eminenti_, Papal Bull, 138

Innes, B., 314

Institute for Harmonius Development of Man, 323

International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, 320

Israel of Podolia (Ba'al Shem Job), 182

"Italian Order," 133, 191

Jachin and Boaz, 107, 111;
pamphlet so-called, 130, 131

Jacques du Molay, 51, 52, 56, 110, 147, 164

James II, 126

Jeanne d'Arc, 77

Jechiel, Rabbi, 85

Jesuits, 125, 197, 414

Jesus Christ, Birth of, 17
-- and Rabbis, 17, 18

Jews, the, xi, xii; ch. xv
-- as Cabalists, 6-16, 78-82, 85, 86, 166-168, ch. viii
-- and magic, 29, 78-82, 175, 178, 181, 182, 184-188, 384
-- and medicine, 81, 82
-- and Jesus Christ, 17-23, 68, 86, 374
-- and Christianity, 374, 378-380
-- and Freemasonry, 108-110, 122-124, 130, 169, 277, 280, 284, 384
-- in France, 246, _et seq._, 365, _et seq._
-- and Germany, 365-368

Johannism, 68-71, 157

Johnson (alias Leucht or Becker), 155, 158

Karmath (Hamdan), 38

Karmathites, 38-40

Kay, John de, 365

Kilmarnock, Lord, 153

Kilwinning, Lodge of, 112

Knigge, Baron von, alias Philo, 210-211, 234, 266

Knight Kadosch, 147, 159, 164, 280

Knights of the East, 149

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 59, 116

Knights Templar (see Templars)

_Knorr_, Baron von Rosenroth, 86

Kollowrath-Krakowski, Comte Leopold de, 236

Kölmer, 199

Koran, 22

Krishnamurti, 301, 305

_Kropotkine_, Peter, Prince, 268

Kuentz, R., 318

"Kundalini," 325

Labour Party, the, 360, 362, 368, 389

Lacorne, 149, 163

Lafayette, 162, 236

Lamballe, Princesse de, 295

Lambert, Alexandre, 250, 251

Lanze, the Illuminatus, 235

Larménie, Jacques de (see Charter of Larmenius)

Lazare, Bernard, 122, 177

Leadbeater, Mr., 301, 308

"Leon, the Jew," 175

_Le Secret des Francs-Maçons_, 131

_Les Francis-Maçons écrasés_, 131, 169

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 191, 229

Levellers, the, 180

_Libres Penseurs_, Lodge of the, 296

Lippe-Bückeburg, Graf von, 152

Little, Robert Wentworth, 310

Lima, Magalhaes, 283

Lodge "Theodore de Bon Conseil," 205, 228

Loge des Neuf L[oe]urs, 236, _et seq._

_Loi Chapelier_, 206

_L'Ordre des Francs-Maçons trahi_, 131

Luchet, Marquis de, 169, 239, _et seq._, 350

Luciferians, the, 63, 64, 76

Lulli, Raymond, 85

Luria, Isaac, 78

Luther, Martin, and the Jews, 21

Machiavelli, 354, 355

Mackenzie, Kenneth, 90, 189

_Maçonnerie d'Adoption_, 295

_Maçonnique Mixte Internationale, Ordre_, 296, 301, _et seq._

Magic, branches of, 84

Magicians, 172-176

Maitland, Edward, 310

Manasseh ben Israel, 123, 179

Mandaites (see Mandæans)

Mandæans, 70, 71

Manes (Cubricus), 33, 107

Manicheism, 32, _et seq._, 74, 75

Marat, 245

Marcosians, 31

Maria Theresa, 183

Marie Antoinette, 164, 195, 283

Marotti, Abbé, 209

Marschall, Baron von, 153, 156

Martin, Dr. George, 296

Martines de Pasqually, 165, 166, 310

_Martinistes_ (see _Illuminés, French_)

Mary, Mother of Jesus, 22

Marx[D], Karl, 385

Maskeline, Chevalier, 134

Mathers, M., 312-314

Mauvillon, 210

Mayas, 4, 119

Meakin, 316

Melchisedeck Lodges, 169

Mendelssohn, Moses, 191, 229

"Mercaba, The," 123

Mesmer, 175

Mirabeau, Honoré Gabriel Riquetti, Comte de, 89, 90, 155, 203-205, 230,
236, 241-243;
his _Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne_, 205

Momoro, 249

Monotheism, 5

Morley, Lord, 160

Moses de Leon, 9, 28

Mounier, vii, 227

Mount Moriah, 106

Mussolini, 405

Mysteries, Eleusinian, 5, 32

_Nathan der Weise_, 191

Nazarenes, 71

Nazarites, 71

Nazoreans, 70

Necklace, Affair of, 234

_New Atlantis_, 119

"New Saints, The," 182

_Nishmat Hayim_, 81, 179

Nizam ul Mulk, 45

Nizzachon (see Sepher Nizzachon)

Olcott, Colonel, 298

Omar Khayyam, 45

Ophites, the, 30

_Ordre du Temple_ (modern), 65, 116, 135, 136, 150, 156, 300

Ordre de Saint-Lazare, 136

Orléans, Phillippe, Duc d' (the Regent), 135, 136

Orléans, Louis Phillippe Joseph (Duc de Chartres), 149, 150, 159, 160,
193, 194, 244

Osiris, 16, 107

_Ostmarkenverein_, 362

Pan-Germanism, 353, _et seq._

_Pantheisticon_, Toland's, 129

Papus (Dr. Gérard Encausse), 162, 310

Paracelsus, 85, 86

Paris, Comte de, 194

"Parvus," alias Helphandlt (Israel Lazarewitch), 363

Paulicians, the, 63

Pepys, Samuel, 181

Pernetti, Dom, 166

Pfefferkorn, 86

_Philalèthes_, 171, 234

Phillippe le Bel, 51, 57, 59, 147

Philo (of Alexandria), 28

"Philo" (see Knigge)

Pico della Mirandola, 85, 93

Pike, Albert, 160

Poale Zion, 383

Pompadour, Marquise de, 173

Portugal, Freemasonry in, 283, 384
-- Carbonarios of, 342

Pott, Mrs., 96, 119

Prelati, 77

Prie, Marquise de, 136

_Protocols of the Elders of Zion_, 381, and Appendix II

Proudhon, 268

Psycho-analysis, 345, 393

Pythagoras, 6

Ragon (François), 65, 122, 310

Rainsford, General, 168, 234

Ramsay, Andrew M., Chevalier, 136, 137, 161, 163

Ranking, Dr., 73

Raymond, Comte de Tripoli, 50, 75

Reuchlin, 86

Richelieu, Cardinal, 85

Richter, Samuel, alias Sincerus Renatus, 169

_Rit Primitif_, 171, 175

Rite of Perfection, 145, 159, 167

Rite of Swedenborg, 166

Robison, 212, 254, see also Preface vi-viii

Roman Catholic Church, 288

Rosenkreutz, Christian, 87, 88, 91, 316, 319

Rose-Croix, degree of, 112, 142-145, 157, 164, 166-169, 202, 235, 277

Rosicrucians, 84-98, 119-122, 168;
Brothers of the Golden and Rosy Cross, 169;
modern Rosicrucians, 310, _et seq._

Rosy Cross, Brothers of (see Rosicrucians)

Royal Arch Degree, 132, 133, 277

Sabians (see Mandæans)

Sade, Marquis de, 78, 246

St. Bernard, 49

"Saint-Germaine, Comte de," 172-175, 234, 306

St. John the Baptist, 70

St. John, the Evangelist, 72, 73
-- Gospel of, 31, 69, 73, 74, 188
-- Knights and Brethren of, 169

Saladin, 49

Salisbury Cathedral, 111

Salonica, lodges of, 284

Sand, George, 207

Satanael, 72

Satanism, 63, 76-84, 324-326

Savalette de Lange, 170, 171, 190, 234, 237

Savine, Monsignor de, 257, 351

Schem Hamphorasch
(see _Tetragrammaton_)

Schroeder, 190

Schroepfer, 172

Scottish Rite (or Ancient and Accepted Rite), 132, 142, 145, 159, 277

Seal of Solomon, 189

Sephardim, 246-247

Sepher Nizzachon, 86

Sepher Toldoth Jeschu (see _Toledot Yeshu_)

_Sepher Yetzirah_, 7, 313

Shabbethai, Zebi, 181, 183

Shiahs, 36, 37

Simon ben Jochai, 8

Simon Magus, 29

Sixtus IV, 85

Socialism, ch. xiii
-- and Freemasonry, 273-275

Solomon, 106, 109

Solomon, Temple of, 49, 106-108, 110, 113, 271

Spedalieri, Baron, 310

Sprengel, Anna, 311-313

Star, five-pointed, 111

Star in the East, Order of, 301, 307

Steiner, Rudolf, 316-318

Stella Matutina, 316, 319, 325

"Stricte Observance," Order of the, 135, 154, 233

Sunnis, 36

Swedenborg Emmanuel, 166

Switzerland, Masonic Congress in, 287
-- a centre of revolution, 364

Syed Ameer Ali, 35, 113, 309

Talmud, the, 6, 71, 80, 183, 369, _et seq._

Taxil, Léo, 76, 324

Templars (see Knights Templar)

Templar tradition in Freemasonry, 110, _et seq._

Temple of Solomon (see Solomon)

Templo, Rabbi Jacob Jehuda Leon, 123

_Tetragrammaton_, 21, 27, 167, 176, 181, 185, 313, 352

Theosophy, 297, _et seq._

Theosophical Society, 300, 307, _et seq._

_Toledot Yeshu_ (or Sepher Toldoth Jeschu), 20, 68, 71, 86, 299, 300

Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood, 299

Tschoudy, Baron, 139, 140

Tugendbund, 265

"United States of Europe," 275, 336

"Universal Republic," 275, 336

Valentinians, the, 31, 32

Vaughan, Thos., 316

Vehmgerichts, 117

Voltaire, 79, 152, 153, 156, 162, 213

Vulliaud, Monsieur Paul, 7, 8

Waechter, Baron de, 190

Waite, Mr. A. E., 91, 96, 113, 133, 315

Westminster Abbey, 111

Weishaupt, Adam, ch. ix, 255-257, 311

Wilhelmsbad, Congress of, 233

Willermoz, 166, 171

William of Orange, 180

Winstanley, Gerard, 180

Witches, 81

Witt Doehring, 265

Wolf, Lucien, 123, 381

Women Masons, 295 (see also "Co-Masonry" and "_Maçonnerie Mixte_")

Woodford, Rev. A. F. A., 311

Young Turk Movement, 284

Zaddikim, 181

Zerdascht, 14

_Zohar, The_, 8, 9, 81, 182, 183, 371, 373

Zoharites, 182

Zoroastrians, 14, 201


[1] _Moniteur_ for the 14th Fructidor, An II.

[2] Seth Payson, _Proofs of the Real Existence and Dangerous Tendency of
Illuminism_ (Charleston, 1802), pp. 5-7.

[3] Ibid., p. 5 note.

[4] Quoted in the Life of John Robison (1739-1805) by George Stronach in
the _Dictionary of National Biography_, Vol. XLIX. p. 58.

[5] _Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh_, Vol. VII, pp. 538,
539 (1815).

[6] _Freemasonry, its Pretensions Exposed_ ... by a Master Mason, p. 275
(New York. 1828).

[7] _Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme_, II. 195 (1818 edition).

[8] Barruel, op. cit., II. 208.

[9] Ibid., II. 311.

[10] I use the word "anti-Semitism" here in the sense in which it has
come to be used--that is to say, anti-Jewry, but place it in inverted
commas because it is in reality a misnomer coined by the Jews in order
to create a false impression. The word anti-Semite literally signifies a
person who adopts a hostile attitude towards all the descendants of
Shem--the Arabs, and the entire twelve tribes of Israel. To apply the
term to a person who is merely antagonistic to that fraction of the
Semitic race known as the Jews is therefore absurd, and leads to the
ridiculous situation that one may be described as "anti-Semitic and
pro-Arabian." This expression actually occurred in _The New Palestine_
(New York), March 23, 1923. One might as well speak of being
"anti-British and pro-English."

[11] Augustus le Plongeon, _Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and the
Quiches_, p. 53 (1909)

[12] Ibid., pp. 56, 58.

[13] Adolf Erman, _Life in Ancient Egypt_, p. 45 (1894).

[14] J.H. Breasted, _Ancient Times: a History of the Early World_, p. 92

[15] This word is spelt variously by different writers thus: Cabala,
Cabbala, Kabbala, Kabbalah, Kabalah. I adopt the first spelling as being
the one employed in the _Jewish Encyclopædia_.

[16] Fabre d'Olivet, _La Langue Hébraïque_, p. 28 (1815).

[17] "According to the Jewish view God had given Moses on Mount Sinai
alike the oral and the written Law, that is, the Law with all its
interpretations and applications."--Alfred Edersheim, _The Life and
Times of Jesus the Messiah_, I. 99 (1883), quoting other Jewish

[18] _Solomon Maimon: an Autobiography_, translated from the German by
J. Clark Murray, p. 28 (1888). The original appeared in 1792.

[19] Alfred Edersheim, _The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah_, II.
689 (1883).

[20] "There exists in Jewish literature no book more difficult to
understand than the Sepher Yetzirah."--Phineas Mordell in the _Jewish
Quarterly Review_, New Series, Vol. II. p. 557.

[21] Paul Vulliaud, _La Kabbale Juive: histotre et doctrine_, 2 vols.
(Émile Nourry, 62 Rue des Écoles, Paris, 1923). This book, neither the
work of a Jew nor of an "anti-Semite," but of a perfectly impartial
student, is invaluable for a study of the Cabala rather as a vast
compendium of opinions than as an expression of original thought.

[22] "Rab Hanina and Rab Oschaya were seated on the eve of every Sabbath
studying the Sepher Ietsirah; they created a three-year-old heifer and
ate it."--Talmud treatise Sanhedrim, folio 65.

[23] Koran, Sura LXXXVII. 10.

[24] Zohar, section Bereschith, folio 55, and section Lekh-Lekha, folio
76 (De Pauly's translation, Vol. I. pp. 431, 446).

[25] Adolphe Franck, _La Kabbale_, p. 39; J. P. Stehelin, _The
Traditions of the Jews_, I. 145 (1748).

[26] Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 68, quoting Talmud treatise Sabbath,
folio 34, Dr. Christian Ginsburg, _The Kabbalah_, p. 85; Drach, _De
l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, I. 457.

[27] Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 69.

[28] Dr. Christian Ginsburg (1920), _The Kabbalah_, pp. 172, 173.

[29] Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 253.

[30] Ibid., p. 20, quoting Theodore Reinach, _Historie des Israelites_,
p. 221, and Salomon Reinach, _Orpheus_, p. 299.

[31] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Cabala.

[32] Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 288.

[33] Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 256, quoting Greenstone, _The Messiah Idea_,
p. 229.

[34] H. Loewe, in an article on the Kabbala in Hastings' _Encyclopædia
of Religion and Ethics_, says: "This secret mysticism was no late
growth. Difficult though it is to prove the date and origin of this
system of philosophy and the influences and causes which produced it, we
can be fairly certain that its roots stretch back very far and that the
mediæval and Geonic Kabbala was the culmination and not the inception of
Jewish esoteric mysticism. From the time of Graetz it has been the
fashion to decry the Kabbala and to regard it as a later incrustation,
as something of which Judaism had reason to be ashamed." The writer goes
on to express the opinion that "the recent tendency requires adjustment.
The Kabbala, though later in form than is claimed by its adherents, is
far older in material than is allowed by its detractors."

[35] Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 22.

[36] Ibid., I. 13, 14, quoting Edersheim, _La Société Juive an temps de
Jésus-Christ_ (French translation), pp. 363-4

[37] See chapters on this question by Gougenot des Mousseaux in _Le
Juif, le Judaïsme et la Judaïsation des Peisples Chrétiens_, pp. 499 and
following (2nd edition, 1886). The first edition of this book, published
in 1869, is said to have been bought up and destroyed by the Jews, and
the author died a sudden death before the second edition could be

[38] Eliphas Lévi, _Histoire de la Magie_, pp. 46, 105. (Eliphas Lévi
was the pseudonym of the celebrated nineteenth-century occultist the
Abbé Constant.)

[39] _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 323.

[40] Ginsburg op. cit. p. 105; _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Cabala.

[41] Gougenot des Mousseaux, _Le Juif, le Judaïsms el la Judaïsation des
Peuples Chrétiens_, p. 503 (1886).

[42] P. L. B. Drach _De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, Vol.
I. p. xiii (1844). M. Vulliaud (op. cit., II. 245) points out that, as
far as he can discover Drach's work has never met with any refutation
from the Jews, by whom it was received in complete silence. The _Jewish
Encyclopædia_ has an article on Drach in which it says he was brought up
in a Talmudic school and afterwards became converted to Christianity,
but makes no attempt to challenge his statements.

[43] Drach, op. cit., Vol. II. p. xix

[44] Franck, op. cit., p. 127.

[45] De Pauly's translation. Vol. V. pp. 336-8, 343-6.

[46] Zohar, treatise Beschalah, folio 59_b_ (De Pauly, III. 265).

[47] Zohar, Toldoth Noah, folio 69_a_ (De Pauly, I. 408).

[48] Zohar, treatise Beschalah, folio 48_a_ (De Pauly, III. 219).

[49] Ibid., folio 44a (De Pauly, III. 200).

[50] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Cabala.

[51] Adolf Erman, _Life in Ancient Egypt_, p. 32.

[52] Zohar, treatise Toldoth Noah, folio 59b (De Pauly, I. 347).

[53] Zohar, treatise Lekh-Lekha, folio 94a (De Pauly, I. 535).

[54] Zohar, treatise Bereschith, folio 26a (De Pauly, I. 161).

[55] The _Emek ha Melek_ is the work of the Cabalist Napthali, a
disciple of Luria.

[56] Drach, _De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, I. 272.

[57] Ibid., p. 273.

[58] D'Herbelot, _Bibliothèque Orientale_ (1778), article on Zerdascht.

[59] Ibid., I. 18.

[60] Rom. iii. 2.

[61] Drach, _De l'Harmonie entre l'Eglise et la Synagogue_, II. 19.

[62] Ibid., I. 280.

[63] Vulliaud, op. cit., II. 255, 256.

[64] Ibid., p. 257, quoting Karppe, _Études sur les Origines du Zohar_,
p. 494.

[65] Ibid., I. 13, 14. In Vol. II. p. 411, M. Vulliaud quotes Isaac
Meyer's assertion that "the triad of the ancient Cabala is Kether, the
Father; Binah, the Holy Spirit or the Mother; and Hochmah, the Word or
the Son." But in order to avoid the sequence of the Christian Trinity
this arrangement has been altered in the modern Cabala of Luria and
Moses of Cordovero, etc.

[66] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Cabala, p. 478.

[67] "...All that Israel hoped for, was national restoration and
glory. Everything else was but means to these ends; the Messiah Himself
only the grand instrument in attaining them. Thus viewed, the picture
presented would be of Israel's exaltation, rather than of the salvation
of the world.... The Rabbinic ideal of the Messiah was not that of 'a
light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel'--the
satisfaction of the wants of humanity, and the completion of Israel's
mission--but quite different, even to contrariety."--Edersheim, _The
Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah_, I. 164 (1883).

[68] Zohar, section Schemoth, folio 8; cf. ibid., folio 9b: "The period
when the King Messiah will declare war on the whole world." (De Pauly,
III. 32, 36).

[69] A blasphemous address entitled _The God Man_, given by Tom
Anderson, the founder of the Socialist Sunday Schools, on Glasgow Green
to an audience of over 1,000 workers in 1922 and printed in pamphlet
form, was founded entirely on this theory.

[70] J.G. Frazer, _The Golden Bough_, Part VI. "The Scapegoat," p. 412
(1914 edition); E.R. Bevan endorses this view.

[71] _Histoire de la Magie_, p. 69.

[72] The Magi or Wise Men are generally believed to have come from
Persia; this would accord with the Zoroastrian prophecy quoted above.

[73] Drach, op. cit., II. p. 32.

[74] Ibid., II. p. xxiii.

[75] Joseph Barclay, _The Talmud_, pp 38, 39; cf. Drach, op. cit., I 167

[76] _The Talmud_, by Michael Rodkinson (alias Michael Levy

[77] _Le Talmud de Babylone_ (1900).

[78] Le Zohar, translation in 8 vols by Jean de Pauly, published in 1909
by Emile Lafuma-Giraud. Wherever possible in quoting the Talmud or the
Cabala I shall give a reference to one of the translations here

[79] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article Talmud.

[80] Drach, op. cit., I. 168, 169. The text of this encyclical is given
by Drach in Hebrew and also in translation, thus: "This is why we enjoin
you, under pain of excommunication major, to print nothing in future
editions, whether of the Mischna or of the Gemara, which relates whether
for good or evil to the acts of Jesus the Nazarene, and to substitute
instead a circle like this O, which will warn the Rabbis and
schoolmasters to teach the young these passages only viva voce. By means
of this precaution the savants amongst the Nazarenes will have no
further pretext to attack us on this subject." Cf. Abbé Chiarini, _Le
Talmud de Babylone_, p. 45 (1831).

[81] On this point see Appendix I.

[82] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on "Jesus."

[83] Eliphas Lévi, _La Science des Esprits_, p. 40.

[84] Origen, _Contra Celsum_.

[85] S. Baring-Gould, _The Counter-Gospels_, p. 69 (1874).

[86] Cf. Baring-Gould, op. cit., quoting Talmud, treatise Sabbath, folio

[87] Ibid., p. 55, quoting Talmud, treatise Sanhedrim, folio 107, and
Sota, folio 47; Eliphas Lévi, _La Science des Esprits_, pp. 32, 33.

[88] According to the Koran, it was the Jews who said, "'Verily we have
slain the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an apostle of God.' Yet they
slew him not, and they crucified him not, but they had only his
likeness.... No against occult powers and the
onslaught of disease. The tract Pesachim declares that he who stands
naked before a candle is liable to be seized with epilepsy. The same
tract also states that "a man should not go out alone on the night
following the fourth day or on the night following the Sabbath, because
an evil spirit, called Agrath, the daughter of Ma'hlath, together with
one hundred and eighty thousand other evil spirits, go forth into the
world and have the right to injure anyone they should chance to meet."

[228] Talmud, treatise Hullin, folios 143, 144.

[229] Hastings' _Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics_, article on Jewish
Magic by M. Caster.

[230] Margaret Alice Murray, _The Witch Cult in Western Europe_, and
Jules Garinet, _Histoire de la Magie en France_, p. 163 (1818).

[231] Hastings' _Encyclopædia_, article on Jewish Magic by M. Gaster.
See the Zohar, treatise Bereschith, folio 54_b_, where it is said that
all men are visited in their sleep by female devils. "These demons never
appear under any other form but that of human beings, but they have no
hair on their heads.... In the same way as to men, male devils appear in
dreams to women, with whom they have intercourse."

[232] The Rev. Moses Margoliouth, _The History of the Jews in Great
Britain_, I. 82. The same author relates further on (p. 304) that Queen
Elizabeth's Hebrew physician Rodrigo Lopez was accused of trying to
poison her and died a victim of persecution.

[233] The Rev. Moses Margoliouth, _The History of the Jews in Great
Britain_, I. 83.

[234] Hastings' _Encyclopædia_, article on Teutonic Magic by F. Hälsig.

[235] Talmud, tract Sabbath.

[236] Hermann L. Strack, _The Jews and Human Sacrifice_, Eng. trans.,
pp. 140, 141 (1900).

[237] See pages 215 and 216 of _The Mysteries of Magic_, by A.E. Waite.

[238] See also A.S. Turberville, _Mediæval Heresy and the Inquisition_,
pp. 111-12 (1920), ending with the words: "The voluminous records of the
holy tribunal, the learned treatises of its members, are the great
repositories of the true and indisputable facts concerning the
abominable heresies of sorcery and witchcraft."

[239] _Histoire de la Magie_, p. 15.

[240] _The Mysteries of Magic_, p. 221.

[241] A.E. Waite, _The Real History of the Rosicrucians_, p. 293.

[242] _Histoire de la Magie_, p. 266.

[243] John Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 205.

[244] Drach (_De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, II. p. 30)
says that Pico della Mirandola paid a Jew 7,000 ducats for the
Cabalistic MSS. from which he drew his thesis.

[245] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, articles on Cabala and Reuchlin.

[246] Ibid., article on Cabala.

[247] The following résumé is taken from the recent reprint of the
_Fama_ and _Confessio_ brought out by the "Societas Rosicruciana in
Anglia," and printed by W. J. Parrett (Margate, 1923). The story, which,
owing to the extraordinary confusion of the text, is difficult to resume
as a coherent narrative is given in the _Fama_; the dates are given in
the _Confessio_.

[248] Incidentally Paracelsus was not born until 1493, that is to say
nine years after Christian Rosenkreutz is supposed to have died.

[249] _Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens_
Part II p. 148 (Munich, 1787).

[250] Mackey, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 265.

[251] Ibid., p. 150.

[252] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Shabbethai Horowitz.

[253] Mirabeau, _Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne_, V. 76.

[254] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, _Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes_, p. 97.

[255] Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification_, II.

[256] A. E. Waite, _The Real History of the Rosicrucians_, p. 216.

[257] "_Traicté des Athéistes, Déistes, Illuminez d'Espagne et Nouveaux
Prétendus Invisibles, dits de la Confrairie de la Croix-Rosaire, élevez
depuis quelques années dans le Christianisme_," forming the second part
of the "_Histoire Générale de Progrès et Décadence de l'Héréie
Moderne_--_A la suite du Premier_" de M. Florimond de Raemond,
Conseiller du Roy, etc.

[258] See G.M. Trevelyan, _England under the Stuarts_, pp. 32, 33, and
James Howell, _Familiar Letters_ (edition of 1753), pp. 49, 435. James
Holwell was clerk to the Privy Council of Charles I.

[259] Th.-Louis Latour, _Princesses, Dames el Adventurières du Règne de
Louis XIV_, p. 278 (Eugène Figutère, Paris, 1923).

[260] Ibid., p. 297.

[261] Ibid., p. 306.

[262] _Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire_, Vol. XXI. p. 129 (1785 edition);
_Biographie Michaud_, article on Glaser.

[263] This assertion finds confirmation in the _Encyclopædia
Britannica_, article on the Rosicrucians, which states: "In no sense are
modern Rosicrucians derived from the Fraternity of the seventeenth

[264] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on the Cabala.

[265] _A Free Mason's Answer to the Suspected Author of a Pamphlet
entitled "Jachin and Boaz," or an Authentic Key to Freemasonry_, p. 10

[266] Quoted by R.F. Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, I. 5, 6.

[267] _Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man_, p. 1 (1910).

[268] _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, XXXII. Part I. p. 47.

[269] Preston's _Illustrations of Masonry_, pp. 143, 147, 153 (1804).

[270] John Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, pp. 269, 327, 329.

[271] Published in the _Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_ by the Marquis
de Luchet, p. 236 (1792 edition).

[272] Brother Chalmers Paton, _The Origin of Freemasonry: the 1717
Theory Exploded_, quoting ancient charges preserved in a MS. in
possession of the Lodge of Antiquity in London, written in the reign of
James II, but "supposed to be really of much more ancient date."

[273] _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, XXV. p. 240, paper by J.E.S. Tuckett on
_Dr. Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary_, with
facsimile of entry in Diary which is preserved in the Bodleian Library
(Ashmole MS. 1136, fol. 19).

[274] Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 383.

[275] Preston's _Illustrations of Masonry_, p. 208 (1804).

[276] _The Origins of Freemasonry: the 1717 Theory Exploded_.

[277] The Rev. G. Oliver, _The Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry_, pp.
55, 57, 62, 318 (1845).

[278] _Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man_, p. 185 (1910).

[279] _Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man_, p. 8 (1910).

[280] Ibid., p. 7. The German Freemason Findel disagrees with both the
Roman Collegia and the Egypt theory, and, like the Abbé Grandidier,
indicates the _Steinmetzen_ of the fifteenth century as the real
progenitors of the Order: "All attempts to trace the history of
Freemasonry farther back than the Middle Ages have been ... failures,
and placing the origin of the Fraternity in the mysteries of Egypt ...
must be rejected as a wild and untenable hypothesis."--_History of
Freemasonry_ (Eng. trans.), p. 25.

[281] Dr. Oliver and Dr. Mackey thus refer to true and spurious Masonry,
the former descending from Noah, through Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob,
and Moses to Solomon--hence the appellation of Noachites sometimes
applied to Freemasons--the latter from Cain and the Gymnosophists of
India to Egypt and Greece. They add that a union between the two took
place at the time of the building of the Temple of Solomon through Hiram
Abiff, who was a member of both, being by birth a Jew and artificer of
Tyre, and from this union Freemasonry descends. According to Mackey,
therefore, Jewish Masonry is the true form.--_A Lexicon of Freemasonry_,
pp. 323-5; Oliver's _Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry_, I. 60.

[282] Rev. G. Oliver, _The Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry_, pp. 55,
57 (1845).

[283] _The Jewish Encyclopaædia_ (article on Freemasonry) characterizes
the name Hiram Abifi as a misunderstanding of 2 Chron. ii. 13

[284] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 340;
Matter, _Histoire du Gnosticisme_, I. 145.

[285] _Quoted_ in _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 36.

[286] Article on Freemasonry, giving reference to Pesik, R.V. _25a_ (ed.

[287] Clavel, op. cit., 364, 365; Lecouteulx de Canteleu, _Les Sectes et
Sociétés Secrétes_, p. 120.

[288] Clavel, op. cit., p. 82.

[289] Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 257.

[290] Ibid., p. 242.

[291] "According to Prof. Marks and Prof. Hayter Lewis, the story of
Hiram Abiff is at least as old as the fourteenth century."--J.E.S.
Tuckett in _The Origin of Additional Degrees, A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p.
14. It should be noted that no Mason who took part in the discussion
brought evidence to show that it dated from before this period. Cf.
_Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges_ (1923), by Wor. Bro.
Lionel Vibert, I.C.S., p. 135, where it is suggested that the Hiramic
legend dates from an incident in one of the French building guilds in

[292] Yarker, op. cit., p. 348; Eckert, op. cit., II. 36.

[293] Eckert, op. cit., II. 28.

[294] "The Essenes, in common with other Syrian sects, possessed and
adhered to the 'true principles' of Freemasonry."--Bernard H. Springett,
_Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon_, p. 91.

[295] "The esoteric doctrine of the Judeo-Christian mysteries evidently
penetrated into the masonic guilds (ateliers) only with the entry of the
Templars after the destruction of their Order."--Eckert, op. cit., II.

[296] _La Comtesse de Rudolstadt_, II. 185.

[297] Ragon, _Cours philosophique des Initiations_, p. 34.

[298] Mr. Sidney Klein in _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, XXXII. Part I. pp.
42, 43.

[299] John Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, pp. 195, 318, 341, 342, 361.

[300] Ibid., p. 196.

[301] Official history of the Order of Scotland quoted by Bro. Fred. H.
Buckmaster in _The Royal Order of Scotland_, published at the offices of
_The Freemason_, pp. 3, 5, 7; A.E. Waite, _Encyclopædia of Freemasonry_,
II. 219; Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 330; Mackey, _Lexicon of
Freemasonry_, p. 267.

[302] Baron Westerode in the _Acta Latomorum_ (1784), quoted by Mackey,
op. cit., p. 265. Mr. Bernard H. Springett also asserts that this degree
originated in the East (_Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon_, p.

[303] Chevalier de Bérage, _Les Plus Secrets Mystères des Hauts Grades
de la Maçonnerie dévoilés, ou le vrai Rose Croix_ (1768); Waite, _The
Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, I. 3.

[304] In 1784 some French Freemasons wrote to their English brethren
saying: "It concerns us to know if there really exists in the island of
Mull, formerly Melrose ... in the North of Scotland, a Mount Heredom, or
if it does not exist." In reply a leading Freemason, General Rainsford,
referred them to the word [Hebrew: **] (Har Adonai), i.e. Mount of God
(_Notes on the Rainsford Papers in A.Q.C._, XXVI. 99). A more probable
explanation appears, however, to be that Heredom is a corruption of the
Hebrew word "Harodim," signifying princes or rulers.

[305] F.H. Buckmaster, _The Royal Order of Scotland_, p. 5. Lecouteulx
de Canteleu says, however, that Kilwinning had been the great
meeting-place of Masonry since 1150 (_Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes_,
p. 104). Eckert, op. cit., II. 33.

[306] Mackey, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 267.

[307] Clavel, op. cit., p. 90; Eckert, op. cit., II. 27.

[308] A.E. Waite, _The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, I. 8.

[309] "Our names of E.A., F.C., and M.M. were derived from
Scotland."--_A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 40. Clavel, however, says that
these existed in the Roman Collegia (_Histoire pittoresque_, p. 82).

[310] _Religious Thought and Heresy in the Middle Ages_, p. 372.

[311] _The Spirit of Islam_, p. 337.

[312] _Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon_, p. 181 (1922).

[313] See, for example, Bouillet's _Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire et
de Géographie_ (1860), article or Templars: "Les Francs-Maçons
prétendent se rattacher à cette secte."

[314] _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 185.

[315] _Findel, Geschichte der Freimaurerei_, II. 156, 157 (1892
edition). Dr. Bussell (op. cit., p. 804), referring to Dupuy's work,
also observes: "An editor of a later edition (Brussels, 1751)
undoubtedly was a Freemason who tried to clear the indictment and
affiliate to the condemned Order the new and rapidly increasing
brotherhood of speculative deism."

[316] The Royal Order of Scotland.

[317] _Manuel des Chevaliers de l'Ordre du Temple_, p. 10 (1825

[318] Oration of Chevalier Ramsay (1737); Baron Tschoudy, _L'Étoile
Flamboyante_, I. 20 (1766).

[319] The description of the Vehmic Tribunals that follows here is
largely taken from Lombard de Langres, _Les Sociétés Secrètes en
Allemagne_ (1819), quoting original documents preserved at Dortmund.

[320] Clavel derides this early origin and says it was the
_Francs-juges_ themselves who claimed Charlemagne as their founder
(_Histoire pittoresque_, p. 357).

[321] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, _Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes_, p. 100.

[322] According to Walter Scott's account of the Vehmgerichts in _Anne
of Geierstein_, the initiate was warned that the secrets confided to him
were "neither to be spoken aloud nor whispered, to be told in words or
written in characters, to be carved or to be painted, or to be otherwise
communicated, either directly or by parable and emblem." This formula,
if accurate, would establish a further point of resemblance.

[323] Lombard de Langres, _Les Sociétés Secrètes en Allemagne_, p. 341
(1819); Lecouteulx de Canteleu, _Les Sectes et Sociétès Secrètes_, p.

[324] A. le Plongeon, _Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and the Quichas_

[325] Findel, _History of Freemasonry_ (Eng. trans., 1866), pp. 131,

[326] John Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 216, 431.

[327] _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 298.

[328] Waite, _The Real History of the Rosicrucians_, p. 403.

[329] Ibid., p. 283.

[330] Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 430.

[331] "Yarker pronounces Elias Ashmole to have been circa 1686 'the
leading spirit, both in Craft Masonry and in Rosicrucianism,' and is of
opinion that his diary establishes the fact 'that both societies fell
into decay together in 1682.' He adds: 'It is evident therefore that the
Rosicrucians ... found the operative Guild conveniently ready to their
hand, and grafted upon it their own mysteries ... also, from this time
Rosicrucianism disappears and Freemasonry springs into life with all the
possessions of the former.' "--_Speculative Freemasonry, an Historical
Lecture_, delivered March 31, 1883, p. 9; quoted by Gould, _History of
Freemasonry_, II. 138.

[332] _L'Antisémitisme_, p. 339.

[333] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, articles on Leon and Manasseh ben Israel.

[334] Article on "Anglo-Jewish Coats-of-arms" by Lucien Wolf in
_Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society_, Vol. II. p. 157.

[335] _Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England_, Vol.
II. p. 156. A picture of Templo forms the frontispiece of this volume,
and a reproduction of the coat-of-arms of Grand Lodge is given opposite
to p. 156.

[336] Zohar, section Jethro, folio 70_b_ (de Pauly's trans., Vol. III.

[337] The Cabalistic interpretation of the Mercaba will be found in the
Zohar, section Bereschith, folio 18_b_ (de Pauly's trans., Vol. I. p.

[338] "By figure of a man is always meant that of the male and female
together."--Ibid., p. 116.

[339] _Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne_, VI. 76.

[340] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., p. 105.

[341] Ibid., p. 106; Lombard de Langres, _Les Sociétés Secrètes en
Allemagne_, p. 67.

[342] Monsignor George F. Dillon, _The War of Anti-Christ with the
Church and Christian Civilization_, p. 24 (1885).

[343] Brother Chalmers I. Paton, _The Origin of Freemasonry: the 1717
Theory Exploded_, p. 34.

[344] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., p. 107; Robison's _Proofs of a
Conspiracy_, p. 27; Dillon, op. cit, p. 24; Mackey, _Lexicon of
Freemasonry_, p. 148.

[345] Preston's _Illustrations of Masonry_, p. 209 (1804); Anderson's
_New Book of Constitutions_ (1738).

[346] _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, XXV. p. 31. See account of some of
these convivial masonic societies in this paper entitled "An Apollinaric

[347] _Religious Thought and Heresy in the Middle Ages_, p. 373. A "Past
Grand Master," in an article entitled "The Crisis in Freemasonry," in
the _English Review_ for August 1922, takes the same view. "It is true
... that the Craft Lodges in England were originally Hanoverian clubs,
as the Scottish lodges were Jacobite clubs."

[348] Dr. Anderson, a native of Aberdeen and at this period minister of
the Presbyterian Church in Swallow Street, and Dr. Desaguliers, of
French Protestant descent, who had taken holy orders in England and in
this same year of 1717 lectured before George I, who rewarded him with a
benefice in Norfolk (_Dictionary of National Biography_, articles on
James Anderson and John Theophilus Desaguliers).

[349] _The Free Mason's Vindication, being an answer to a scandalous
libel entitled (sic) The Grand Mystery of the Free Masons discover'd_,
etc. (Dublin, 1725). It is curious that this reply is to be found in the
British Museum (Press mark 8145, h. I. 44), but not the book itself. Yet
Mr. Waite thinks it sufficiently important to include in a "Chronology
of the Order," in his _Encyclopædia of Freemasonry_, I. 335.

[350] _Gentleman's Magazine_ for April 1737.

[351] Dates given in _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. pp. 11, 12, and Deschamps,
_Les Sociétés Secrétes et la Société_, III. 29. The writer of the paper
in _A.Q.C._ appears not to recognize the authorship of the second work
_L'Ordre des Francs-Maçons trahi_; but on p. xxix of this book the
signature of Abbé Pérau appears in the masonic cypher of the period
derived from the masonic word LUX. This cypher is, of course, now well
known. It will be found on p. 73 of Clavel's _Histoire pittoresque_.

[352] The British Museum possesses no earlier edition of this work than
that of 1797, but the first edition must have appeared at least
thirty-five years earlier, as _A Free Mason's Answer to the suspected
Author of ... Jachin and Boaz_, of which a copy may be found in the
British Museum (Press mark 112, d. 41), is dated 1762. This book bears
on the title-page the following quotation from Shakespeare:

"Oh, that Heaven would put in every honest Hand a Whip
to lash the Rascal naked through the World."

[353] The author of _Jachin and Boaz_ says in the 1797 edition that in
reply to this work he has received "several anonymous Letters,
containing the lowest Abuse and scurrilous Invectives; nay some have
proceeded so far as to threaten his Person. He requests the Favour of
all enraged Brethren, who shall chuse to display their Talents for the
future, that they will be so kind as to pay the Postage of their Letters
for there can be no Reason why he should put up with their ill Treatment
and pay the Piper into the Bargain. Surely there must be something in
this Book very extraordinary; a something they cannot digest, thus to
excite the Wrath and Ire of these hot-brained Mason-bit Gentry." One
letter he has received calls him "a Scandalous Stinking Pow Catt (sic)."

[354] _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 34.

[355] Ibid.

[356] Ibid., p. 15. Mackey also thinks that R.A. was introduced in 1740,
but that before that date it formed part of the Master's degree
(_Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 299).

[357] Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 437.

[358] Review by Yarker of Mr. A. E. Waite's book _The Secret Tradition
in Freemasonry_ in _The Equinox_, Vol. I. No. 7, p. 414.

[359] _Encyclopædia of Freemasonry_, II. 56.

[360] _A.Q.C._, Vol. XXXII, Part I. p. 23.

[361] Correspondence on Lord Derwentwater in _Morning Post_ for
September 15, 1922. Mr. Waite (_The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, I.
113) wrongly gives the name of Lord Derwentwater as John Radcliffe and
in his _Encyclopædia of Freemasonry_ as James Radcliffe. But James was
the name of the third Earl, beheaded in 1716.

[362] Gould, op. cit. III. 138. "The founders were all of them
Britons."--_A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 6.

[363] "If we turn to our English engraved lists we find that whatever
Lodge (or Lodges) may have existed in Paris in 1725 must have been
unchartered, for the first French Lodge on our roll is on the list for
1730-32.... It would appear probable ... that Derwentwater's Lodge ...
was an informal Lodge and did not petition for a warrant till
1732."--Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, III. 138.

[364] John Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, p. 462.

[365] Gautier de Sibert, _Histoire des Ordres Royaux,
Hospitaliers-Militaires de Notre-Dame du Carmel et de Saint-Lazare de
Jérusalem_, Vol. II. p. 193 (Paris, 1772).

[366] This oration has been published several times and has been
variously attributed to Ramsay and the Duc d'Antin. The author of a
paper in _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I., says on p. 7: "Whether Ramsay
delivered his speech or not is doubtful, but it is certain that he wrote
it. It was printed in an obscure and obscene Paris paper called the
_Almanach des Cocus_ for 1741 and is there said to have been
'pronounced' by 'Monsieur de R--Grand Orateur de l'Ordre.' It was again
printed in 1742 by Bro. De la Tierce in his _Histoire, Obligations et
Statuts, etc.,..._ and De la Tierce says that it was 'prononcé par le
Grand Maître des Francs-Maçons de France' in the year 1740.... A. G.
Jouast (_Histoire du G.O._, 1865) says the Oration was delivered at the
Installation of the Duc d'Antin as G.M. on 24th June, 1738, and the same
authority states that it was first printed at the Hague in 1738, bound
up with some poems attributed to Voltaire, and some licentious tales by
Piron.... Bro. Gould remarks: 'If such a work really existed at that
date, it was probably the original of the "_Lettre philosophique par M.
de V---- _, _avec plusieurs piéces galantes_," London, 1757.'" Mr. Gould
has, however, provided very good evidence that Ramsay was the author of
the oration by Daruty's discovery of the letter to Cardinal Fleury,
which together with the oration itself (translated from De la Tierce's
version) he reproduces in his _History of Freemasonry_, Vol. III. p. 84.

[367] _A.Q.C., XXII_. Part I. p. 10.

[368] _Les plus secrets mystères des Hants Grades de la Maçonnerie
dévoilés, ou le vrai Rose-Croix._ A Jerusalem. M.DCC.LXVII. (_A.Q.C._,
Vol. XXXII. Part I. p. 13, refers, however, to an edition of 1747).

[369] As Godefroi de Bouillon died in 1100, I conclude his name to have
been introduced here in error by de Bérage or the date of 1330 to have
been a misprint.

[370] Dr. Mackey confirms this assertion, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p.

[371] _Étoile Flamboyante_, I. pp. 18-20.

[372] The same theory that Freemasonry originated in Palestine as a
system of protection for the Christian faith is given almost verbatim in
the instructions to the candidate for initiation into the degree of
"Prince of the Royal Secret" published in _Monitor of Freemasonry_
(Chicago, 1860), where it is added that "the brethren assembled round
the tomb of Hiram, is a representation of the disciples lamenting the
death of Christ on the Cross." Weishaupt, founder of the
eighteenth-century Illuminati, also showed--although in a spirit of
mockery--how easily the legend of Hiram could be interpreted in this
manner, and suggested that at the periods when the Christians were
persecuted they enveloped their doctrines in secrecy and symbolism.
"That was necessary in times and places where the Christians lived
amongst the heathens, for example in the East at the time of the
Crusades."--_Nachtrag zur Originalschriften_, Part II. p. 123.

[373] _Étoile Flamboyante_, pp. 24-9.

[374] Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, III. 92.

[375] Mackey's _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 267.

[376] Oliver's _Landmarks of Freemasonry_, II. 81, note 35.

[377] _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 270.

[378] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 166.

[379] _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part 1. p. 17.

[380] _The Royal Order of Scotland_, by Bro. Fred. H. Buckmaster, p. 3

[381] _Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Messire François de
Salignac de la Mothe-Fenélon, archevêque de Cambrai_, pp. 105, 149

[382] J.M. Ragon, _Ordre Chapitral, Nouveau Grade de Rose-Croix_, p. 35.

[383] The identity of Lord Harnouester has remained a mystery. It has
been suggested that Harnouester is only a French attempt to spell
Derwentwater, and therefore that the two Grand Masters referred to were
one and the same person.

[384] In 1786 the seventh and eighth degrees were transposed, the
eleventh became Sublime Knight Elect, the twentieth Grand Master of all
Symbolic, the twenty-first Noachite or Prussian Knight, the twenty-third
Chief of the Tabernacle, the twenty-fourth Prince of the Tabernacle, the
twenty-fifth Knight of the Brazen Serpent. The thirteenth is now known
as the Royal Arch of Enoch and must not be confounded with the Royal
Arch, which is the complement of the third degree. The fourteenth is now
the Scotch Knight of Perfection, the fifteenth Knight of the Sword or of
the East, and the twentieth is Venerable Grand Master.

[385] _History of Freemasonry_, III. 93. Thory gives the date of the
Kadosch degree as 1743, which seems correct.

[386] Zohar, section Bereschith, folio 18b.

[387] _A.Q.C._, XXVI: "Templar Legends in Freemasonry."

[388] "This degree is intimately connected with the ancient order of the
Knights Templars, a history of whose destruction, by the united efiorts
of Philip, King of France, and Pope Clement V, forms a part of the
instructions given to the candidate. The dress of the Knights is black,
as an emblem of mourning for the extinction of the Knights Templars, and
the death of Jacques du Molay, their last Grand Master...."--Mackey,
_Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 172.

[389] Mr. J.E.S. Tuckett, in the paper before mentioned, quotes the
Articles of Union of 1813, in which it is said that "pure ancient
Masonry consists of three degrees and no more," and goes on to observe
that: "According to this view those other Degrees (which for convenience
may be called Additional Degrees) are not real Masonry at all, but an
extraneous and spontaneous growth springing up around the 'Craft'
proper, later in date, and mostly foreign, i.e. non-British in origin,
and the existence of _any_ such degrees is by some writers condemned as
a contamination of the 'pure Ancient Freemasonry' of our
forefathers."--_A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 5.

[390] J. J. Mounier, _De l'Influence attribuée aux Philosophes, aux
Francs-Maçons et aux Illuminés sur la Révolution Française_, p. 148
(1822). See also letter from the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick to
General Rainsford dated January 19, 1799, defending Barruel from the
charge of attacking Masonry and pointing out that he only indicated the
upper degrees, _A.Q.C._, XXVI, p. 112.

[391] Em. Rebold, _Histoire des Trots Grandes Loges de Francs-Maçons en
France_, pp. 9, 10 (1864).

[392] _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. 21.

[393] _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. 22. It is curious that in this discussion
by members of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge the influence of the Templars,
which provides the only key to the situation, is almost entirely

[394] Yarker, _The Arcane Schools_, pp. 479-82.

[395] Mackey, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 119.

[396] _Martines de Pasqually_, par Papus, président du Suprême Conseil
de l'Ordre Martiniste, p. 144 (1895). Papus is the pseudonym of Dr.
Gérard Encausse.

[397] Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, III. 241.

[398] See the very important article on this question that appeared in
_The National Review_ for February 1923, showing that Carlyle was
assisted gratuitously throughout his work by a German Jew named Joseph
Neuberg and was supplied with information and finally decorated by the
Prussian Government.

[399] Executed in 1746 as a partisan of the Stuarts.

[400] Gould, op. cit., Vol. III. pp. 101, 110; _A.Q.C._, Vol. XXXII.
Part I. p. 31.

[401] A. E. Waite, _The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, I. 296, 370,

[402] Clavel (_Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 185)
says it was afterwards discovered that "the Pretender, far from having
made de Hundt a Templar, on the contrary was made a Templar by him." But
other authorities deny that Prince Charles Edward was initiated even
into Freemasonry.

[403] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, _Les Sectes et Societes Secrètes_, p. 242;
Clavel, op. cit., p. 184.

[404] Gould, op. cit., III. 100.

[405] Ibid., III. 99, 103; Waite, _Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, I.
289: "The Rite of the Stricte Observance was the first masonic system
which claimed to derive its authority from Unknown Superiors,
irresponsible themselves but claiming absolute jurisdiction and
obedience without question."

[406] _Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne_, V. 61 (1788).

[407] _Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes_, p. 246.

[408] Gould, op. cit., III. 102. Waite (_Encyclopædia of Freemasonry_,
II. 23) says Johnson was "in reality named Leucht, an Englishman by his
claim--who did not know English and is believed to have been a Jew."

[409] Mackey, op. cit., p. 331.

[410] Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, III. 93; _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I.
p. 24.

[411] _Lévitikon_, p. 8 (1831); Fabré Palaprat, _Recherches historiques
sur les Templiers_, p. 28 (1835)

[412] M. Grégoire, _Histoire des Sectes Religieuses_, II. 401. Findel
says that very soon after Frederick's return home from Brunswick "a
lodge was secretly organized in the castle of Rheinsberg" (_History of
Freemasonry_, Eng. trans., p. 252). This lodge would appear then to have
been a Templar, not a Masonic Lodge.

[413] Oliver, _Historical Landmarks in Freemasonry_, II. 110

[414] Findel, _History of Freemasonry_ (Eng. trans.), p. 290.

[415] On this point see _inter alia_ Mackey, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_,
pp. 91, 328. In England and in the Grand Orient of France most of the
upper degrees have fallen into disuse, and this rite, known in England
as the Ancient and Accepted Rite and in France as the Scottish Rite,
consists of five degrees only in addition to the three Craft degrees
(known as Blue Masonry), which form the basis of all masonic rites.
These five degrees are the eighteenth Rose-Croix, the thirtieth Kniqht
Kadosch, and the thirty-first to the thirty-third. The English
Freemason, on being admitted to the upper degrees, therefore advances at
one bound from the third degree of Master Mason to the eighteenth degree
of Rose-Croix, which thus forms the first of the upper degrees. The
intermediate degrees are, however, still worked in America.

[416] _Scottish Rite of Freemasonry: the Constitutions and Regulations
of_ 1762, by Albert Pike, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme
Council of the Thirty-third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the
United States, p. 138 (A.M. 5632).

[417] RO. State Papers, Foreign, France, Vol. 243, Jan. 2 and Feb. 19,

[418] John Morley, _Diderot and the Encyclopædists_, Vol. I. pp. 123-47

[419] Gould, op. cit., III. 87. Mr. Gould naïvely adds in a footnote to
this passage: "The proposed Dictionary is a curious crux--- is it
possible that the Royal Society may have formed some such idea?" The
beginning already made in London was of course the _Cyclopædia_ of
Chambers, published in 1728, and Chambers, who in the following year was
made a Fellow of the Royal Society, if not himself a Mason numbered many
prominent Masons amongst his friends, including the globe-maker Senex to
whom he had been apprenticed and who published Anderson's
_Constitutions_ in 1723. (See _A.Q.C._, XXXII. Part I. p. 18.)

[420] Papus, _Martines de Pasqually_, p. 146 (1895).

[421] Evidently a reference to the seven liberal arts and sciences
enumerated in the Fellow Craft's degree--Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic,
Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astronomy.

[422] In 1767 Voltaire writes to Frederick asking him to have certain
books printed in Berlin and circulated in Europe "at a low price which
will facilitate the sales." To this Frederick replies: "You can make use
of my printers according to your desires," etc. (letter of May 5, 1767).
I have referred elsewhere to the libels against Marie Antoinette
circulated by Frederick's agents in France. See my _French Revolution_,
pp. 27, 183.

[423] Eliphas Lévi, _Histoire de la Magie, p_ 407. The rôle of
Freemasonry in preparing the Revolution habitually denied by the
conspiracy of history is nevertheless clearly recognized in masonic
circles--applauded by those of France, deplored by those of England and
America. An American manual in my possession contains the following
passage: "The Masons ... (it is now well settled by history) _originated
the Revolution_ with the infamous Duke of Orleans at their head."--_A
Ritual and Illustrations of Freemasonry_, p. 31 note.

[424] Papus, _Martines de Pasqually, p_. 150.

[425] Benjamin Fabre, _Eques a Capite Galeato_, p. 88.

[426] _Souvenirs du Baron de Gleichen_, p. 151.

[427] Henri Martin, _Histoire de France_, XVI. 529.

[428] Heckethorn, _Secret Societies_, I. 218; Waite, _Secret Tradition_,
II. 155, 156.

[429] "The ceremonial magic of Pasqually followed that type which I
connect with the debased Kabbalism of Jewry."--A. E. Waite, _The Secret
Tradition in Freemasonry_, II. 175.

[430] An eighteenth-century manuscript of _Les vrais clavicules du roi
Salomon_, translated from the Hebrew, was sold in Paris in 1921.

[431] Mackev, _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 156

[432] A.E. Waite, _The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah_, p. 369.
Ragon elsewhere gives an account of the philosophical degree of the
Rose-Croix, in which the sacred formula I.N.R.I., which plays an
important part in the Christian form of this degree, is interpreted to
mean Igne Natura Renovatur Integra--Nature is renewed by fire.--_Novueau
Grade de Rose Croix_, p 69. Mackev gives this as an alternative
interpretation of the Rosicrucians.--_Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 150.

[433] Ragon, _Mafonnerie Occulte_, p. 91.

[434] Gustave Bord, _La Franc-Maçonnerie en Francs, des Origines à_
1815, p. 212 (1908).

[435] Letter from General Rainsford of October 1782, quoted in
_Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society_, Vol. VIII. p. 125.

[436] De Luchet (_Essai sur la Sects des Illuminés_, p. 212) refers to
the following works in connexion with the Order:

1. _Nouvelles authentiques des Chevaliers et Frères Initiés

2. _Reçoit-on, peut-on recevoir les Juifs parmi les Franc-Maçons_?

3. _Nouvelles authentiques de l'Asie_, by Frederick de Bascamp,
nommé Lazapolski (1787).

Wolfstieg, in his _Bibliograpkie der Freimaurischer Literatur_, Vol. II.
p. 283, gives Friedrich Münter as the author of the first of the above,
and also mentions amongst others a work by Gustave Brabée, _Die
Asiatischen Brüder in Berlin und Wien_. But none of these are to be
found in the British Museum, nor is the book of Rolling (published in
1787), which gives away the secrets of the sect.

[437] Books in Wolfstieg's list refer to the Order as "the only true and
genuine Freemasonry" (die einzige wahre und echte Freimaurerei).

[438] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque_, etc., p. 167.

[439] The Baron de Gleichen, in describing the "Convulsionists," says
that young women allowed themselves to be crucified, sometimes head
downwards, at these meetings of the fanatics. He himself saw one nailed
to the floor and her tongue cut with a razor. (_Souvenirs da Baron de
Gleichen_, p. 185.)

[440] Barruel, _Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme_, IV. 263.

[441] _Franciscus, Eques a Capite Galeato_, published by Benjamin Fabre
with preface by Copin Albancelli. A paper on this book appears in _Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum_, Vol. XXX. Part II. The author, Mr. J. E. S.
Tuckett, describes it as a book of extraordinary interest to Freemasons.
Without sharing Mr. Tuckett's admiration for the members of the Rit
Primitif, I agree with him that M. Fabre attributes to them too much
guile and fails to substantiate his charge of revolutionary designs.
They appear to have been the perfectly honourable dupes of subtler
brains. Incidentally Mr. Tuckett erroneously gives the real name of
"Eques a Capite Galeato" as Chefdebien d'Armand; it should be

[442] De Luchet, _Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_, p. 208. Gould, op.
cit., III. 116.

[443] It is amusing to note that Mr. Waite confuses him with the
rightful bearer of the name, Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain,
Minister of War under Louis XVI, for in _The Secret Tradition in
Freemasonry_, Vol. II., a picture of the real Count is appended to a
description of the adventurer.

[444] _Biographic Michaud_, article on Saint-Germain.

[445] _Souvenirs de la Marquise de Créquy_, III. 65. Francois Bournand
(_Histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 106) confirms this story: "The
man who called himself the Comte de Saint-Germain was in reality only
the son of an Alsatian Jew named Wolf."

[446] _Nouvelle Biographie Générale_, article on Saint-Germain.

[447] Frederick Búlau, _Geheime Geschichten und ràthselhafte Menschen_,
I. 311 (1850); Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnene dans sa véritable
signification_, II. 80, quoting Lening's _Encyclopédie des

[448] Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., pp. 171, 172.

[449] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque_, p. 175.

[450] Ibid., p. 175.

[451] Figuier, _Histoire du Merveilleux_, IV. 9-11 (1860).

[452] Mounier, _De l'influence attribuée_, etc., p. 140.

[453] Benjamin Fabre, _Franciscus eques a Capite Galeato_, p. 24.

[454] De Luchet, _Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_ (1792 edition), p.

[455] _L'Antisémitisme_, p. 335.

[456] Ibid., p. 328.

[457] Article by Mr. Lucien Wolf, "The First English Jew," in
_Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England_, Vol. II. p.
18. On this question see also the pamphlets by Mr. Lucien Wolf:
_Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth_ (1894), Cromwell's _Jewish
Intelligencers_ (1891), and _Manasseh ben Israel's Mission to Oliver
Cromwell_ (1901), also articles on Cromwell, Carvajal, and Manasseh ben
Israel in the _Jewish Encyclopædia_.

[458] Lucien Wolf, "The First English Jew," in _Transactions of the
Jewish Historical Society of England_, II. 20.

[459] Tovey, _Anglia Judaica_, p. 275.

[460] The _Jewish Encyclopædia_, in its article on Manasseh ben Israel,
says: "He was full of cabalistic opinions, though he was careful not to
expound them in those of his works that were written in modern languages
and intended to be read by Gentiles." In its article on "Magic" the
_Jewish Encyclopædia_ refers to the "Nishmat Hayyim," a work by Manasseh
ben Israel which "is filled with superstition and magic" and adds that
"many Christian scholars were deluded."

[461] Tovey, _Anglia Judaica_, p. 259; Margoliouth, _History of the Jews
in England_, II. 3.

[462] Mirabeau (_Sur la Réforme politique des Juifs_, 1787) thinks they
may not have been allowed to return unconditionally until 1664. It was
certainly at this date that they were formally granted free permission
to live in England and practice their religion (Margoliouth, op. cit.,
II. 26).

[463] Margohouth, op cit., II 43.

[464] _The Digger Movement in the Days of the Commonwealth_, by Lewis H.
Berens, pp. 36, 74, 76, 98, 141 (1906).

[465] Claudio Jannet, _Les Précurseurs de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 47

[466] _Harmsworth Encyclopædia_, article on Jews.

[467] _Diary of Samuel Pepys_, date of February 19, 1666

[468] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Shabbethai Zebi B. Mordecai.

[469] Henry Hart Milman, _History of the Jews_ (Everyman's Library),
Vol. II. p. 445.

[470] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Ba'al Shem Tob.

[471] Milman, op. cit, II. 446.

[472] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Heilprin, Joel Ben Uri.

[473] Heckethorn, _Secret Societies_, I. 87.

[474] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Jacob Frank.

[475] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Jacob Frank.

[476] Ibid.

[477] Milraan, op. cit., II. 447.

[478] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Jacob Frank.

[479] Ibid.

[480] Ibid.: Heckethorn. _Secret Societies_, I. 87.

[481] Milman, op. cit., II. 448. Cf. description of pomp displayed by
another member of the oppressed race named Fränkel, who appeared at a
parade of Jewry at Prague in 1741 in a carriage drawn by six horses and
surrounded by footmen and horseguards.--_Jewish Encyclopædia_, article
on Fränkel, Simon Wolf.

[482] _Jewish Encyclopedia_, article on Falk, of whom a good portrait by
Copley is given. On Falk see also _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, Vol. XXVI.
Part I. pp. 98-105, and Vol. XXX. Part II; _Transactions of the Jewish
Historical Society_, Vol. V. p. 148, article on "The Ba'al Shem of
London," by the Rev. Dr. H. Adler, Chief Rabbi, and Vol. VIII, "Notes on
some Contemporary References to Dr. Falk, the Ba'al Shem of London, in
the Rainsford MSS. at the British Museum," by Gordon P.G. Hills. The
following pages are taken entirely from these sources.

[483] Falk does not appear to have brought good fortune to the Goldsmid
family, for Margoliouth in a passage which evidently relates to Falk
says that, according to Jewish legend, the suicide of Abraham Goldsmid
and his brother was attributed to the following cause: "A Ba'al Shem, an
operative Cabalist, in other words a thaumaturgos and prophet, used to
live with the father of the Goldsmids. On his death-bed he summoned the
patriarch Goldsmid, and delivered into his hands a box, which he
strictly enjoined should not be opened till a tertain period which the
Ba'al Shem specified, and in case of disobedience a torrent of fearful
calamities would overwhelm the Goldsmids. The patriarch's curiosity was
not aroused for some time; but in a few years after the Ba'al Shem's
death, Goldsmid, the aged, half sceptic, half curious, forced open the
fatal box, and then the Goldsmids began to learn what it was to
disbelieve the words of a Ba'al Shem."--Margoliouth, _History of the
Jews_, II. 144.

[484] _Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society_, V. 162.

[485] Benjamin Fabre, _Eques a Capite Galeato_, p. 84.

[486] Benjamin Fabre, op cit., pp. 88, 90, 98, 110.

[487] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque_, pp. 188, 390; Robison's _Proofs of
a Conspiracy_, p. 77.

[488] _The Royal Masonic Cyclopædia_ describes both _Nathan der Weise_
and _Ernst und Falk_ as prominent works on Masonry.

[489] There is, however, the possibility that Lessing may have had in
mind another Falk living at the same period; this was "John Frederick
Falk, born at Hamburg of Jewish parents, reported to have been head of a
Cabalistic College in London and to have died about 1824" (_Tranactions
of the Jewish Historical Society_, VIII. 128). But in view of the part
which the correspondence of Savalette de Langes shows the Ba'al Shem of
London to have played in the background of Freemasonry, it seems more
probable that he was the Falk in question. At any rate, both were Jews
and Cabalists.

[490] Who can this have been?

[491] The Duchesse de Gontaut relates in her _Mémoires_ that the Due
d'Orléans was one day driving through the forest of Fontainebleau when a
man, half clothed and with a demented air, sprang towards the carriage,
grimacing horribly. The Duke's suite, taking him for a madman, would
have kept him at bay, but the Duke, at that moment awaking from sleep,
unbuttoned his shirt and showed his assailant an iron ring suspended
round his neck. At this sight the man took to his heels and disappeared
into the wood. The mystery of this incident was never elucidated, and
the Duke, when questioned on the matter, would offer no explanation.
Could this ring have been Falk's talisman?

[492] Margoliouth, op. cit., II. 121-4. See also _Life of Lord George
Gordon_ by Robert Watson (1795), pp. 71, 72.

[493] Friedrich Bülau, _Geheime Geschichten und räthselhafte Menschen_,
I. 325 (1850). _The Public Advertiser_, Aug. 22, 24, 1786.

[494] Barruel, Vol. III. p. xi., quoting Gaultier.

[495] Silvestre de Sacy, "Mémoires sur la Dynastie des Assassins," in
_Mémoires de l'Institut Royal de France_, Vol. IV. (1818).

[496] _History of Freemasonry_, III. 121.

[497] _Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme_ (edition of 1819), Vol. III. p. 9.

[498] Ibid., III. 55, 56.

[499] _Essat sur la Secte des llluminés_, pp. 28-39.

[500] "Our worst enemies the Jesuits."--Letter from Spartacus,
_Originalschriften_, p. 306.

[501] Figuier, _Histoire de Merveilleux_, IV. 77.

[502] _Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens_, p. 230.

[503] Ibid., p. 331.

[504] In _World Revolution_ I suggested a resemblance between the Jewish
calendar and that of the Illuminati. This was an error; the Jewish
calendar was adopted by the Scottish Rite, which, as we have seen,
derived partly from Judaic sources.

[505] Thus Zwack (alias Cato) writes: "We have not only hindered the
enlistings of the Rose-Croix but rendered their very name
contemptible."--_Originalschriften_, p. 8.

[506] _Originalschriften_, p. 363. The word Illuminism is always
represented by this symbol in the correspondence of the Illuminati.

[507] Ibid., p. 202.

[508] Ibid., p. 331.

[509] A. E. Waite, "Freemasonry and the Jewish Peril," in _The Occult
Review_ for September 1920, p. 152.

[510] _Mémoires de Mirabeau écrats par lui-même, par son père, son oncle
et son fils adoptif, et prècédés d'une étude sur Mirabeau par Victor
Hugo_, Vol. III. p. 47 (1834).

[511] I have expressly made use of M. Barthou's résumé instead of making
one of my own, lest I should be said to have made judicious selections
in order to suit the purpose of showing the resemblance between this
Memoir and the passage from Mirabeau's other writings which follows. But
M. Barthou's impartiality cannot be impugned, for he appears to know
nothing about the Illuminati or Mirabeau's connexion with them, and
regards the Memoir in question as solely the outcome of Mirabeau's mind
which had "ripened" since 1772.

[512] F. Barthou, _Mirabeau_, p. 57.

[513] In the Memoir drawn up by Mirabeau quoted above we find this
passage: "It must be a fundamental rule never to allow any prince to
enter the association were he a god for virtue."--_Mémoires de
Mirabeau_, III. 60.

[514] _Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne_, V. 99.

[515] Henry Martin, _Histoire de France_, XVI. 533.

[516] Louis Blanc, _Histoire de la Révolution Française_, II. 84.

[517] _History of Freemasonry_, III. 121.

[518] _Originalschriften_, p. 258.

[519] Ibid., p. 297.

[520] Ibid., p. 285.

[521] Ibid., p. 286.

[522] _Originalschriften_, p. 300. It seems that when a Freemason
appeared likely to fall in with the scheme of Illuminism, he was soon
allowed to know of the further system. Thus in the case of "Savioli"
"Cato" writes: "Now that he is a Mason I have put all about this (·)
before him, shown him what is unimportant and at this opportunity taken
up the general plan of our (·), and as this pleased him I said that such a
thing really existed, whereat he gave me his word that he would enter
it."--_Originalschriften_, p. 289.

[523] Ibid., p. 303.

[524] Ibid., p. 361.

[525] Ibid., p. 363.

[526] Ibid., p. 360.

[527] _Originalschriften_, p. 200.

[528] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 67.

[529] _Ibid._, p. 95.

[530] _Lexicon of Freemasonry_, p. 142. See also Oliver's _Historical
Landmarks of Freemasonry_, I. 26, where the Illuminati are rightly
included amongst the enemies of Masonry. Nevertheless, both Mackey and
Oliver proceed to revile Barruel and Robison as enemies of Masonry, and
in order to substantiate this accusation Oliver descends to the most
flagrant misquotation. For if we look up in the original the passages he
quotes on page 382 from Robison and on page 573 from Barruel as evidence
of their calumnies on Masonry, we shall find that they refer
respectively to the Rose-Croix Cabalists and the Illuminati and not to
the Freemasons at all! See Robison's _Proofs of a Conspiracy_, p. 93,
and Barruel's _Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme_ (1818 edition), II. 244.

[531] _Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire_ (1818 edition). Vol. XLI. p. 153.

[532] Ibid., pp. 165, 168.

[533] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_. II. 54-57.

[534] Ibid., p. 82.

[535] Ibid., p. 59.

[536] Ibid., p. 63.

[537] Ibid., p. 65.

[538] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 67.

[539] Ibid., pp. 80, 81.

[540] Ibid., pp. 98, 99.

[541] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 100-101.

[542] Ibid., p. 105: "He Himself lived with His disciples in community
of goods."

[543] Ibid, p. 101. This was one of the earliest heresies of the
Christian era refuted by Origen: "Moreover, he [Celsus] frequently calls
the Christian doctrine a secret system, we must refute him on this point
... to speak of the Christian doctrine as a secret system is altogether
absurd."--Origen, _Contra Celsum_, in _The Ante-Nicene Christian
Library_, p. 403 (1869).

[544] Ibid., p. 106.

[545] Ibid., p. 113.

[546] Ibid., p. 96.

[547] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 111.

[548] Ibid., II. 123.

[549] Ibid., II. 124.

[550] Ibid., I. 68.

[551] Ibid., II. 113.

[552] Ibid., II. 115.

[553] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 13, 14.

[554] Ibid., I. 104.

[555] Ibid., I. 104-106.

[556] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 76.

[557] _Originalschriften_, p. 8.

[558] Ibid., p. 9.

[559] Ibid., p. 10

[560] _Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo_, pp. 143, 163.

[561] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 3.

[562] _Originalschriften_, p. 215.

[563] Ibid., p. 173.

[564] Ibid., p. 175.

[565] Ibid., pp. 237-8.

[566] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 12.

[567] _Originalschriften_, p. 231.

[568] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 2.

[569] _Originalschriften_, p. 51.

[570] Ibid., p. 52.

[571] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 45.

[572] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 51.

[573] _Originalschriften_, p. 210.

[574] Ibid., p. 72.

[575] Ibid., p. 271.

[576] Ibid., p. 50.

[577] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 32.

[578] _Royal Masonic Cyclopædia_, article on Illuminati.

[579] Feder, a preacher at the Court who had joined the Illuminati.

[580] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 42.

[581] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 39, 40.

[582] Ibid., I. 47.

[583] _Originalschriften_, pp. 370, 371.

[584] Ibid., pp. 257, 258.

[585] Given in the cypher of the Illuminati: "Denken sie, meine 18. 10.
5. 21. 12. 6. 8. 17. 4. 13. ist 18. 10. 5. 21. 12. 13. 6. 8. 17. (meine
Schwägerin ist schwanger)." See cypher on p. 1 of _Originalschnften_.

[586] Note, then, that this was no sudden lapse on the part of

[587] _Nachtrag von ... Onginalschrtften_, I. 14-16.

[588] Ibid., I. 21.

[589] Ibid., I. 99.

[590] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, I. 112.

[591] Author of the very interesting work _La Vérité sur les Sociétés
Secrétes en Allemagne_, par un Ancien Illuminé (Paris, 1819).

[592] _De l'Influence attribuée aux Philosophes, aux Francs-Maçons et
aux Illuminés sur la, Révolution de France_, par J.J. Mounier (1822), p.

[593] It has several times been stated that Weishaupt was himself a Jew.
I cannot find the slightest evidence to this effect.

[594] _Originalschriften_, pp. 107-10.

[595] "Foresight indicates," says Falk, "that an end must be made to the
whole of the present scheme of Freemasonry [_dem ganzen jetzigen Schema
der Freimaurerei ein Ende zu machen_]," and he goes on to show that this
must be done by picked men in the secret societies who know the true
secrets of Masonry. This is precisely Weishaupt's idea.

[596] In 1779 Spartacus writes to Marius and Cato suggesting that
instead of Illuminati the Order should be called the "Order of Bees
[Bienenorden oder Bienengesellschaft]," and that all the statutes should
be clothed in this allegory--_Originalschriften_, p. 320.

[597] _Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften_, II. 81.

[598] My italics.

[599] Where are they called this? The Cabala distinctly states that
Israel alone is to possess the future world (Zohar, section Vayschlah,
folio 177b), whilst the Talmud even excludes the lost tribes: "the ten
tribes have no share in the world to come" (Tract Sanhedrim, Rodkinson's
translation, p. 363).

[600] _Memoirs of Moses Mendelssohn_, by M. Samuels, pp. 56, 57 (1827).

[601] Letter to the _Jewish Chronicle_, September 1, 1922, quoting
Henrietta Herz.

[602] Goethe was initiated into Freemasonry on St. John's Eve, 1780.
_The Royal Masonic Cyclopædia_ observes: "There exist two great
classical Masonic writers, Lessing and Goethe." Dr. Stauffer, in _New
England and the Bavarian Illuminati_ (p. 172), points out further that
Goethe's connexion with the Illuminati is fully established by both
Engel (_Geschichte des Illuminatenordens_, pp. 355 and following) and by
Le Forestier (_Les Illuminés de Baviére_, pp. 396 and following). It is
possible that _Faust_ may be the history of an initiation by a
disillusioned Illuminatus.

[603] Henri Martin, _Histoire de France_, Vol. XVI. p. 531.

[604] _Historie de la Monarchie prussienne_, V. 73.

[605] _Ars Quatuor Coronatorum_, Vol. XXVI. p. 98.

[606] "Notes on the Rainsford Papers" in _A.Q.C._, Vol. XXVI. p. 111.

[607] _Morning Herald_ for November 2, 1786.

[608] Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification_,
Vol. II. p. 92.

[609] _Drei merkwürdige Aussagen_, etc., evidence of Grünberger,
Cosandey, and Renner (Munich, 1786); _Grosse Absichten des Ordens der
Illuminaten_, etc., Ditto, with Utzschneider (Munich, 1786).

[610] Gustave Bord, _La Franc-Maçonnerie en France_, etc., p. 351
(1908). This Australian Count is referred to in the correspondence of
the Illuminati more as an agent than as an adept. Thus Weishaupt writes:
"I must attempt to cure him of theosophy and bring him round to our
views" (_Nachtrag von ... Originalschnften_, I. 71); and Philo, before
the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, observes: "Numenius is not yet of much use.
I am only taking him up so as to stop his mouth at the Congress [_um ihn
auj dem Convente das Meul zu stopfen_]; still, if he is well led we can
make something out of him." (ibid., p. 109).

[611] _Die Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in dem
Illuminaten-Orden._ p. viii (1794).

[612] De Luchet, _Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_, p. vii.

[613] Crétineau Joly, _L'Église Romaine en face de la Révolution_, I. p.

[614] In my _World Revolution_ I accepted erroneously the opinion of
several well-known writers who attribute this pamphlet to Mirabeau. The
fact that it was printed at the end of Mirabeau's _Histoire Secrète de
la Cour de Berlin_ and that a further edition revised by Mirabeau was
published in 1792 no doubt gave rise to this supposition. But apart from
the fact that Mirabeau as an Illuminatus was unlikely himself to
denounce the Order, the proof that he was not the author may be found at
the British Museum, where the copy of the 1792 edition bears on the
title-page the words in ink "Donné par l'auteur," and Mirabeau died in
the spring of the preceding year.

[615] British Museum press-mark F. 259 (14).

[616] _Oeuvres posthumes de Marmontel_, IV. 77.

[617] Lombard de Langres, _Histoire des Jacobins_, p. 31 (1820).

[618] Deschamps, _Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société_, II. 151, quoting
document amongst the papers of Cardinal Bernis entitled: _Discours
prononcé au comité de la Propagande par M. Duport, un de ses mémoires,
le 21 mai 1790._

[619] Galart de Montjoie, _Histoire de Marie Antoinette de Lorraine_, p.
156 (1797).

[620] Lombard de Langres, _Histoire des Jacobins_, p. 117 (1820).

[621] Ibid., p. 236.

[622] See _Die Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo_, p. 71, where
the Illuminati are described as wearing "fliegende Haare und kleine
vierekte rothe samtne Hute." An alternative theory is, however, that the
"cap of liberty" was copied from that of the galley-slaves.

[623] _Histoire des Jacobins_, p. 117.

[624] A.E. Waite, _The Mysteries of Magic_, p. 215.

[625] _Moniteur_, Vol. II., séance du 23 décembre, 1789.

[626] Théophile Malvezin, _Histoire des Juifs à Bordeaux_, p. 262

[627] _Requête des six corps de marchands et négociants de Paris contre
l'admission des Juifs_ in Archives Nationales, quoted by Henri Delassus,
_La Question Juive_, p. 60 (1911).

[628] Leon Kahn, _Les Juifs de Paris pendant la Révolution_ (1898).

[629] Ibid., p. 167. Cf. Arthur Chuquet, _La Légion Germanique_, p. 139

[630] Archives Nationales, F*. 2486.

[631] My _French Revolution_, p. 274.

[632] Kahn, op. cit., pp. 140, 141, 170, 201, 241.

[633] _Nouvelle Adresse des Juifs à l'Assemblée Nationale_, le 24
décembre, 1789.

[634] _Moniteur_, Vol. XVIII., séances of 21st and 22nd Brumaire, An 2
(November, 1793).

[635] _Discours de morale, prononcé le 2ième décadi, 20 frimaire, l'an
2ième de la république ... an temple de la Vérité, ci-devant l'église
des bénédictins à Angely Boutonne ... fait par le citoyen Alexandre
Lambert, fils, juif et élevé dans les préjugés du culte judaïque_
(1794), British Museum press-mark F. 1058 (4).

[636] Kahn, op. cit., p. 311.

[637] _Crimes de la Révolution_, III. 44.

[638] Archives Nationales, _Pièce remise par le Cabinet de Vienne_
(1824), F* 7566.

[639] Chevalier de Malet, _Recherches politiques et historiques_, p. 2

[640] Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification_, II.

[641] Mr. Lucien Wolf, "The Jewish Peril," article in the _Spectator_
for June 12, 1920.

[642] A.E. Waite, "Occult Freemasonry and the Jewish Peril," in _The
Occult Review_ for September, 1920.

[643] Deschamps, op. cit., II. 197, quoting _Tableau historique de la
Maçonnerie_, p. 38.

[644] _Eques a Capite Galeato_, pp. 362, 364, 366.

[645] Ibid., p. 423.

[646] _The War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian
Civilization_, p. 30 (1885).

[647] G. Lenôtre, _Le Dauphin_ (Eng. trans.), p. 307.

[648] Archives Nationales, F* 6563.

[649] Archives Nationales F* 6563 No. 2449, Série 2. No. 49.

[650] _Pièce remise par le Cabinet de Vienne_, F* 7566.

[651] _Lettres d'un Voyageur à l'Abbé Barruel_, p. 30 (1800).

[652] _World Revolution_, pp. 86 and following, where extracts from the
correspondence of the Alta Vendita (or Haute Vente Romaine) were given.
This correspondence will be found in _L'Église Romaine en face de la
Révolution_, by Crétineau Joly, who published it from the documents
seized by the Pontifical Government at the death of one of the members.
The documents were communicated to Crétineau Joly by the Pope Grégoire
XVI, and published with the approval of Pius IX. Their authenticity has
never been questioned. They are still in the secret archives of the
Vatican, or at any rate were there at the beginning of the present year.

[653] Jan Witt, dit Buloz, _Les Sociétés Secrètes de France et
d'ltalie_, pp. 20, 21 (1830).

[654] Ibid., p. 6.

[655] Louis Blanc, _Histoire de Dix Ans_, I. 88, 89.

[656] Deschamps, _Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société_, II. 534, quoting
the _Monde Maçonmque_ for July, 1867.

[657] _Correspondence de Michel Bakounine_, published by Michael
Dragomanov, pp. 73, 209 (1896).

[658] A. E. Waite, _The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, Vol. I. p. ix.

[659] _The Real History of the Rosicrucians_, p. 403.

[660] Paul Nourrisson, _Les Jacobins an Pouvoir_, pp. 202, 215 (1904).

[661] J.M. Ragon, _Cours philosophique ... des Initiations_, etc.,
édition sacrée (5,842), p. 19.

[662] Ibid., p. 38.

[663] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, p. 124

[664] Ibid., p. 125.

[665] Ragon, op. cit., p. 38, note 2.

[666] Ibid., p. 39.

[667] Ibid., p. 52.

[668] Ibid., p. 53.

[669] Clavel, _Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie_, p. 21.

[670] Ibid., p. 23.

[671] In _La République universelle_, published in 1793.

[672] Georges Goyau, _L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme_, p. 242
(1913), quoting speech of F. Troubat in 1886. A periodical called _Les
États Unis de l'Europe_ was published by Ferdinand Buisson in 1868.
Ibid., p. 113.

[673] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvoir occults contre la France_, p. 89.

[674] Gould, _History of Freemasonry_, III. 191, 192.

[675] Ibid., III. 26.

[676] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, p. 97.

[677] Ibid., p. 90.

[678] _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, pp. 274-7.

[679] Ibid., pp. 284-6.

[680] _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, p. 44.

[681] Ibid., p. 263.

[682] Ibid., p. 294.

[683] _La Conjuration juive contre le Monde Chrétien_ (1909).

[684] _Morning Post_ for February 1 and February 26, 1923.

[685] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, p. 132.

[686] Gautrelet, _La Franc-Maçonnerie et la Révolution_, p. 87 (1872).

[687] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France_, p. 85.

[688] Louis Dasté, _Marie Antinette et le Complot Maçonnique_, pp. 49-51

[689] _Times_ for December 30, 1921; _A Epoca_, November 28, 1921.

[690] These documents were published in a book entitled _A
Szabadkömivesseg Bünei_ by Adorjan Barcsay.

[691] _Two Centuries of Freemasonry_, p. 79. Published by the
International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, of Neuchatel, 1917.

[692] Article on "The Popes and Freemasonry," by the Rev. Herbert
Thurston, S.J., in _The Tablet_ for January 27, 1923.

[693] _Evening Standard_, June 26, 1923.

[694] Ragon, _Cours des Initiations_, p. 33.

[695] Alliance de la Démocratic Socialiste, etc., publié par l'ordre du
Congrès International de la Haye, p. 93 (1873).

[696] _Histoire des Clubs de Femmes_, by the Baron Marc de Villiers, p.

[697] René Guénon, _Le Théosophisme_, p. 245 (1921).

[698] Guénon, op. cit., p. 248, quoting _La Lumière Maçonnique_,
Nov.--Dec. 1912, p. 522.

[699] Alice Leighton Cleather, _H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work for
Humanity_ p. 17 (Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

[700] René Guénon, op. cit., p. 17.

[701] René Guénon, op. cit., p. 30.

[702] Guénon, op cit., p. 193, quoting _Le Lotus_ for December, 1887.

[703] I refrain from giving the name of this book as the author has now
left the Theosophical Society and may regret having written these words.

[704] Adolphe Franck, _La Kabbale_, pp. ii-iv.

[705] See _ante_, pp. 21, 66, 92.

[706] Alice Leighton Cleather, _A Great Betrayal_, p. 13 (1922).

[707] See on this subject the ravings contained in the book _Christ and
the New Age_ (1922), edited by G. Leopold, under the auspices of "The
Star in the East."

[708] Dudley Wright, _Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry_, p. 221 (1922).

[709] In a few lodges the purely British ritual has been adopted under
the name of the Verulam working, whilst recently a third ritual has been
introduced by "Bishop Wedgwood," which in the opinion of a high British
Mason "upsets the whole working of the Craft degrees and reduces it all
to an absurdity."

[710] Alice Leighton Cleather, _H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work for
Humanity_, p. 24 (Thacker. Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

711] Alice Leighton Cleather, _H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work for
Humanity_, p. 24. (Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

[712] Ibid., p. 14.

[713] Ibid., pp. 20, 311.

[714] Nos. of January 11 to March 22, 1923.

[715] A. L. Cleather, _H. P. Blavatsky' a Great Betrayal_, p. 69 (Thacker,
Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

[716] _John Bull_, June 7, 1919; _The Patriot_, February 15, 1923.

[717] _The War and the Builders of the Commonwealth_, a lecture given at
the Queen's Hall by Annie Besant on October 5, 1919, pp. 15, 18 (printed
by the Theosophical Publishing Co.).

[718] Diary of the Theosophical Society for April-July, 1924, p. 43.

[719] On June 26, 1923

[720] _The Theosophical Quarterly_ for October 1920, April 1921, and
April 1922 (published by the Theosophical Society, New York).

[721] Syed Ameer Ali expresses the opinion that even to Eastern minds
esoteric speculation presents a danger: "Sufism in the Moslem world,
like to its counterpart in Christendom, has, in its practical effect,
been productive of many mischievous results. In perfectly well-attuned
minds mysticism takes the form of a noble type of idealistic philosophy;
but the generality of mankind are more likely to unhinge their brains by
busying themselves with the mysteries of the Divine Essence and our
relations thereto. Every ignorant and idle specimen of humanity, who,
despising real knowledge, abandoned the fields of true philosophy and
betook himself to the domains of mysticism, would thus set himself up as
one of the Ahl-i-Ma 'rifat."--_The Spirit of Islam_, p. 477.

[722] Confirmed by A.Q.C. 1. 54.

[723] Guénon, op. cit., p. 296. It would appear to be this MS. or a copy
which was recently offered for sale by a Paris bookseller under the
following description: "Manuscrit de Kabbale.--Spedalieri (Baron de. Le
Sceau de Salomon). Traité sur les Séphiroth, en un in-f. de 16 pp....
le baron Spedalieri fut le disciple le plus instruit et le plus intime
d'Eliphas Lévi.--Son traté kabalistique 'Le Sceau de Salomon' est fondé
sur la tradition hébraïque et hindoue et nous révèle le sens occulte du
grand pantacle mystique. Dans une étude sur les séphiroth, Eliphas Lévi
annonçait que le temps venu il révèlerait à ses disciples ce grand
mystère jusqu'ici caché.--Spedalieri entreprend cette révélation." Le
Bibliophile ès Sciences Psychiques, No. 16 (1922). Librairie Emile
Nourry, 62 ru des Ecoles, Paris, Ve.

[724] See ante, p. 34.

[725] Robert Kuentz, _Le Dr Steiner et la Théosophie actuelle_, series
of articles in the review _Le Feu_ for October, November and December
1913 and reprinted in pamphlet form.

[726] The year of the General Strike.

[727] Letter from Meakin to Baron Walleen, a Dane and member of the S.M.

[728] Bertrand Russell, _The practice and Theory of Bolshevism_, p. 65

[729] Amongst ths "subsidiary activities" of the Theosophical Society
may be mentioned the Liberal Catholic Church, the Guild of the Citizens
of Tomorrow, the Order of the Brothers of Service, the Golden Chain, the
Order of the Round Table, the Bureau of Social Reconstruction, the
Braille League, the Theosophical Educational Trust, etc.

[730] _Le Pouvoir Occulte contre la France_, p. 291.

[731] "The struggle to instil into the masses the idea of the Soviet
State control, and accounting, that this idea may be realised and a
break be made with the accursed past, which accustomed the people to
look upon the work of getting food and clothing as a 'private' affair
and on purchase and sale as something that 'concerns only myself'--this
is a most momentous struggle, of universal historical significance, a
struggle for Socialist consciousness against bourgeois-anarchistic
'freedom.'"--Lenin, _The Soviets at Work_, p. 22 (The Socialist
Information and Research Bureau, 196 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, 1919).

[732] Mr. Bernard Shaw on "Railway Strike Secrets," reported in _Morning
Post_ for December 3, 1919.

[733] Mr. Bernard Shaw in the _Labour Monthly_ for October 1921.

[734] Report of interview with Maxim Gorky in _Daily News_ for October
3, 1921.

[735] Opinion expressed to me in conversation with a Socialist. Cf. Keir
Hardie, "Communism, the final goal of Socialism" (_Serfdom to
Socialism_, p. 36).

[736] "By the decree of May 22 1922, the right of private ownership of
means of production and for production itself was re-established." See
article by Krassin on "The New Economic Policy of the Soviet Government"
in _Reconstruction_ (the monthly review edited by Parvus) for September

[737] See Guillaume's _Documents de l'Internationale_ and Mrs. Snowden's
_A Political Pilgrim in Europe_.

[738] _Les Sociétés de Pensée et la Démocratie_ (1921). M. Augustin
Cochin collaborated with M. Charles Charpentier in throwing new light on
the French Revolution, and triumphantly refuted M. Aulard in 1908.
Unhappily his work was cut short by the war and he was killed at the
front in July 1916, leaving his great history of the Revolution

[739] Mr. Philip Snowden in debate on Socialism in the House of Commons
on March 20, 1923: "By far the greatest time that man has been upon this
globe he has lived not under a system of private enterprise, not under
capitalism, but under a system of tribal communism, and it is well worth
while to remember that most of the great inventions that have been the
basis of our machinery and our modern discoveries were invented by men
who lived together in tribes."

[740] _The Red Catechism_, by Tom Anderson, p. 3.

[741] E.g. the following extract from an address by Miss Esther Bright
to the Esoteric School of Theosophy quoted in _The Patriot_ for March
22, 1923: "The hearty and understanding co-operation between E.S.T.
members of many nations will form a nucleus upon which the nations may
build the big brotherhood which we hope may become the United States of
Europe. United States! What a fine sound it has when one looks at the
Europe of to-day!" A review named _Les États-Unis d'Europe_ existed as
early as 1868, and M. Goyau shows that this formula and also that of the
"République Universelle" were slogans current amongst the pacifists
before and during the war of 1870 which they signally failed to
avert.--_L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme_, pp. 113, 115.

[742] How bitterly this attitude is still resented by the Jews is shown
in the article on Jesus in the _Jewish Encyclopædia_, which observes
that: "In almost all of his public utterances he was harsh, severe, and
distinctly unjust ... toward the ruling and well-to-do classes. After
reading his diatribes against the Pharisees, the Scribes, and the rich,
it is scarcely to be wondered at that these were concerned in helping to
silence him" (vol. vii, p. 164).

[743] The execution of Monseigneur Butkievitch, the Roman Catholic
Archbishop of Petrograd, was condoned by the _Daily Herald_, the _New
Statesman_, and the _Nation_. See the _Daily Herald_ for April 7, 1923.

[744] Letters from a friend of the present writer in Russia, dates of
August 1922 and February 1923.

[745] _Daily Herald_ for February 21, 1922.

[746] Ibid., March 18, 1920.

[747] See Report of Annual Conference of the Social Democratic
Federation in _Morning Post_ for August 6, 1923, where it is said that
"Whole-hearted denunciation of Sovietism was the chief feature of the
day's discussion," etc.

[748] _Evening Standard_ for January 15, 1924.

[749] _Daily Telegraph_ for January 8, 1923; _Daily Mail_ for January
24, 1923.

[750] Report of speech by Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, at a public
meeting to protest against the treatment of political prisoners in
Portugal, April 22, 1913, quoted in _Portuguese Political Prisoners_, p.
89 (published by Upcott Gill & Son).

[751] _Evening Standard_, May 14, 1923.

[752] That this use of the cinema for revolutionary propaganda is
deliberate was proved to me by personal experience. A man who had been
struck with the dramatic possibilities of something I had written wrote
to ask if he might place it before a certain well-known film producer in
America. I gave my consent, and some time later he informed me that the
producer in question regretted he could not film my work as it might
appear to be anti-Bolshevist propaganda. Soon after this the same
producer brought out a film on the same subject with the moral turned
round the other way, so as to make the whole thing subtly revolutionary,
and brought this over to England, where he advertised it as
anti-Bolshevist propaganda! This is typical of the duplicity displayed
by these propagandists.

[753] Quoted in _Le Problème de la Mode_, by the Baronne de Montenach,
p. 30(1913).

[754] Robison, _Proofs of a Conspiracy_, pp. 251, 252 (1798).

[755] Article by A. Quiller in _The Equinox_ for September 1910, p. 338.

[756] _New York Herald_ for September 6 and 7, 1921.

[757] Private communication to the author.

[758] Paul Bureau, _La Crise morale des Temps nouveaux_, p. 108 (1907).

[759] _Daily Mail_, July 14, 1922.

[760] _Le Smorfie dell' Anima_, by Mario Mariani (1919).

[761] A leader writer in one of the most important literary
Constitutional journals in this country observed to me in conversation
that "all such nonsense as patriotism ought to be done away with";
another writer for the same paper told me he would not in the least
regret to see the British Empire broken up.

[762] Astolphe de Custine, _La Russie en_ 1839, I. 149 (1843).

[763] _Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés_ (1792 edition), p. 48. On p. 46
de Luchet expresses his idea in a curious passaqe which I find difficult
to render in English: "Il s'est formé au sein des plus épaisses
ténèbres, une société d'êtres nouveaux qui se connaissent sans s'être
vus, qui s'entendent sans s'être expliqués, qui se servent sans amitié.
Cette société a le but de gouverner le monde...."

[764] Ibid., p. 171.

[765] Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification_,
translated by the Abbé Gyr (1854), II. 133, 134.

[766] My italics.

[767] Galart de Montjoie, _Histoire de Marie Antoinette_, p. 156 (1797).

[768] G. Lenôtre, _The Dauphin_, Eng. trans., p. 307.

[769] _Recherches politiques et historiques sur l'existence d'une secte
révolutionnaire_, p. 2 (1817).

[770] J. Crétineau-Joly, _L'Église Romaine en face de la Revolution_,
II. 143 (1859).

[771] _Lord George Bentinck, A Political Biography_, pp. 552-4 (1852).

[772] _Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société_, I. 91

[773] Ibid., II. 243.

[774] Ibid., II. 521.

[775] Robison's _Proofs of a Conspiracy_, p. 107.

[776] A good account of this was contained in a letter to _The Times_ of
January 23, 1924.

[777] _The Prince_, Eng. trans, by Henry Morley, p. 61.

[778] Ibid., p. 110.

[779] Ibid., p. 110.

[780] Ibid., p. 131.

[781] _The Prince_, Eng. trans, by Henry Morley, pp. 143, 144.

[782] M. Mazères, _De Machiavel et de l'influence de sa doctrine sur les
opinions, les mæurs et la politique de la France pendant la Rèvolution_

[783] Deschamps, _Les Sociètès Secrètes, etc._, I. p. xcii., quoting
"Discours du F. Malapert a la Loge Alsace-Lorraine" in _La Chains
d'Umon_, pp. 88, 89 (1874); ct. Eckert, _La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa
véritable signification_, II. 293.

[784] Deschamps, op. cit., II. 681.

[785] _Politica Segreta Italiana_, by Diamilla Muller, p. 346 (1891).

[786] Copin Albancelli, _Le Pouvotr occulte contre la France_, p. 388.

[787] Series of article entitled "Boche and Bolshevik" by Nesta H.
Webster and Herr Kurt Kerlen, which appeared in the _Morning Post_ for
April 26, 27, June 10, 11, 15, 16, 1922. Reprinted in book form by the
Beckwith Company of New York.

[788] _Boche and Bolshevik_, p 39.

[789] _The General Staff and its Problems_, II. 556

[790] One of the pamphlets emanating from the first of these lines and
entitled "England's War Guilt" reached the present writer. Its purport
is to show that "England alone was the chief agent of the war," and that
Lord Haldane and Sir Edward Grey, by encouraging Germany to believe that
England would not intervene, led her into a trap.

[791] Georges Goyau, _L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme_, p. in

[792] August 19, 1919.

[793] My italics.

[794] _Daily Herald_ for January 26, 1923. So tender a regard did the
_Daily Herald_ entertain for the feelings of German magnates that its
susceptibilities were deeply shocked at the correspondent of another
paper, who, after lunching with Herr Thyssen, was so "ungentlemanly" as
to comment afterwards on the display of wealth he had witnessed (_Daily
Herald_ for February 2, 1923). Yet the _Daily Herald_ reporter had seen
nothing ungentlemanly in attending a garden party at Buckingham Palace
and publishing a sneering account of it afterwards under the heading of
"Pomp and Farce in the Palace" (date of July 21, 1921).

[795] Karl Marx in his _Preamble of the Provisional Rules of the
Internationale_ (1864).

[796] _The Times_, June 30, 1922; the _Morning Post_, June 26 and 30,
1922. A very curious and well-informed article, from which some of these
details are taken, appeared in the _West Coast Leader_, Lima, Peru, of
December 14, 1921.

[797] _Lettres inédites de Joseph de Maistre_, p. 415 (1851).

[798] Letter from the Rev. B. S. Lombard to Lord Curzon, March 23, 1919.

[799] _Jewish Guardian_ for January 18, 1924.

[800] _Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on Zionism.

[801]_La République universelle_, p. 186 note (1793).

[802] _Daily Mail_, September 21, 1923.

[803] Reported in the _Jewish World_, January 5, 1922.

[804] _Morning Post_ for August 1, 1921.

[805] Michael Rodkinson (i.e. Rodkinssohn), in Preface to translation of
the Talmud, Vol. I. p. x.

[806] Drach, _De l'Harmomie entre l'Église[C] et la Synagogue_, I. 167,
quoting the treatise Aboda-Zara, folio 13 verso, and folio 20 recto;
also treatise Baba Kamma, folio 29 verso. Drach adds: "We could multiply
these quotations almost to infinity."

[807] Zohar, section Toldoth Noah, folio 63_b_ (de Pauly's trans., I

[808] Zohar, section Toldoth Noah, folio 646 (de Pauly's trans., I.

[809] J.P. Stehelin, _The Traditions of the Jews_, II. 215-20, quoting
Talmud treatises Baba Bathra folio 74_b_, Pesachim folio 32, Bekhoroth
folio 57, Massektoth Ta'anith folio 31. The Zohar also refers to the
female Leviathan (section Bô, de Pauly's trans., III. 167). Drach shows
that amongst the delights promised by the Talmud after the return to
Palestine will be the permission to eat pork and bacon.--_De l'Harmonie
entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, I. 265, 276, quoting treatise Hullin,
folio 17, 82.

[810] Stehelin, op. cit., II. 221-4.

[811] The Very Rev. Sir George Adam Smith, _Syria and the Holy Land_, p.
49 (1918).

[812] Zohar, section Schemoth, folio 7 and 9_b_; section Beschalah,
folio 58b (de Pauly's trans., III. 32, 36, 41, 260).

[813] Ibid., section Vayschlah, folio 177_b_ (de Pauly's trans., II. p.

[814] Hastings' _Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics_, article on the
Kabbala by H. Loewe.

[815] Eugène Tavernier, _La Religion Nouvelle_, p. 265 (1905).

[816] _Jewish Guardian_ for January 25, 1924.

[817] Deuter. ix. 5.

[818] Dan. ix. 11.

[819] Neh. ix. 26.

[820] Isa. i. 1-17. See also Ezek. xx. 13.

[821] _Jewish Guardian_ for October 1, 1920.

[822] Josephus, _The Jewish War_ (Eng. trans.), IV. 170, 334.

[823] Ibid., V. 152.

[824] See, for example, the descriptions of the horrible cruelty
practised in the Jewish schools of Poland in the eighteenth century,
given in _The Autobiography of Solomon Maimon_ (Eng. trans., 1888), p.

[825] Treatise Hullin, folio 27_a_.

[826] Talmud, treatise Sanhedrim (Rodkinson's trans, p. 156).

[827] _Encyclopædia Britannica_ (1911 edition), article on Lord

[828] Drach, _De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue_, II. 336.
This custom is still in force; see the very legitimate complaint of a
Jewess in the _Jewish World_ for December 21, 1923, that women are still
relegated to the gallery "to be hidden behind the grille, whence they
may hear their menfolk bless the Almighty in strident tones that 'Thou
hast not made me a woman.'"

[829] Drach, op. cit., II. 335, 336, quoting Talmud, treatise Meghilla
folio 23 verso, treatise Berachoth folio 21 verso, treatise Sanhedrim
folio 2 recto, Maimonides chap. viii. art 6; Schulchan Arukh, etc.

[830] In this connexion see article on "Jesus" in the _Jewish
Encyclopædia_, where the reader is referred to the work of O. Holtzmann
(_War Jesus Ekstattker_?), who "agrees that there must have been
abnormal mental processes involved in the utterances and behaviour of

[831] _Jewish World_ for December 22. 1920.

[832] Exod. i 10.

[833] Sura v. 60 (Everyman's Library edition, p. 493).

[834] Reinhardt Dozy, _Spanish Islam_ (Eng. trans.), p. 651.

[835] J. Denais-Darnays, _Les Juifs en France_, p. 17 (1907).

[836] On the question of the Protocols, see Appendix II.

[837] "Jews have been most conspicuous in connexion with Freemasonry in
France since the Revolution."--_Jewish Encyclopædia_, article on

[838] A.E. Waite, _The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry_, II. 115.

[839] It is significant to notice that in the second and abridged
edition of the white Paper issued by the Foreign Office these two most
important passages marked with an asterisk were omitted and the first
edition was said to be unobtainable.

[840] On this point see also a very interesting pamphlet _From Behind
the Vail_, published by Victor Hornyanszky (Budapest, 1920), also Madame
Cécile Tormay, _The Diary of an Outlaw_ (1923).

[841] _Revolutionary Radicalism, its History, Purpose, and Tactics, with
an Exposition and Discussion of the Steps being taken and required to
curb it, being the Report of the Joint Legislative Committee
investigating Seditious Activities, filed April_ 24, 1920. _in the
Senate of the State of New York_ (Albany, J.B. Lyon Company, Printers,

[842] _Revolutionary Radicalism_, Vol. I. p. 374.

[843] Ibid., p. 24.

[844] Among those who prominently showed their profound grief at the
death of Lenin were Jews, and not merely Jews by origin but conforming
Jews. Children from Jewish schools, we learn, joined in the procession,
while the Hebrew Art Theatre (Habima) sent a banner with the inscription
in Hebrew: "You freed the nations; you will be remembered for ever.' In
addition Rabbi Jacob Mase, of Moscow, the Jewish Relief Committee of
that city and other Jewish bodies, sent telegrams of condolence; while
the Association of Jewish Authors issued a special memorial magazine in
Yiddish dedicated to the memory of Lenin."--_Jewish World_ for January
21, 1924.

[845] _Patriot_, for April 26, 1923.

[846] Ibid., May 3, 1923.

[847] _Jewish World_ for January 10, 1924.

[848] Quoted in the _Jewish World_ for January 10, 1924,

[849] _Jewish World_ for November 9, 1922.

[850] _Le Probléme Juif_. pp. 41, 43.

[851] Lenin, _The Soviets at Work_, p. 18.

[852] I do not here ignore the work of the Trade Unions; but the Trade
Unions would have been powerless to better conditions without the
support of upper and middle-class men in Parliament.

[853] Private communication to author.

[854] See _ante_, p. 343.

[855]Madame Cécile Tormay, in her description of the Jewish Bolshevist
régime in Hungary, eloquently observes: "It is said that only a
misguided fraction of the Jews is active in the destruction of Hungary.
If that be so, why do not the Jews who represent Jewry in London, in New
York, and at the Paris Peace Conference disown and brand their tyrant
co-religionists in Hungary? Why do they not repudiate all community with
them? Why do they not protest against the assaults committed by men of
their race?" (_An Outlaw's Diary_, p. 110, 1923).

[856] For example, when religious persecution in Russia was said to have
turned against the Jews in the spring of 1923.

[857] _Jewish Intelligence, and Monthly Account of the Proceedings of
the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews_, April
1846, pp. 111, 112: Letter from the Rev. B.W. Wright.

[858] Gustave Le Bon goes so far as to say that "the Jews have never
possessed either arts, sciences, or industries, or anything that
constitutes a civilization.... At the time of their greatest power under
the reign of Solomon it was from abroad that they were obliged to bring
the architects, workmen, and artists, of which no rival then existed in
Israel."--_Les Premières Civilisations_, p. 613 (1889). It should be
remembered, however, that Hiram, the master-builder, was half, if not
wholly, an Israelite.

[859] _Jewish Encyclopedia_, article on Nervous Diseases.

[860] _Jewish World_ for November 9, 1922.

[861] H.M. Hyndman, "The Dawn of a Revolutionary Epoch," in _The
Nineteenth Century_ for January 1881.

[862] A committee has recently been formed by the Jewish Board of
Guardians to sit on all "anti-Semitic" movements in this country. At a
meeting of this body it was complacently announced that "the Committee
had obtained the removal of the posters of an anti-Semitic paper from
the walls of an important establishment, and steps had been taken to get
others removed."--_Jewish Guardian_, February 22, 1924. We wonder
whether the Welsh would be able to obtain the removal of posters
advertising literature of an anti-Celtic nature. This comes perilously
near to a fulfilment of the Protocols.

[863] Drach, _De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue._ I. 79
(1844). It is curious to notice that the Jewish writer Margoliouth makes
use of the same expression where he says, "It was well remarked that the
house [of Rothschild] 'was spread like a network over the
nations.'"--_History of the Jews in Great Britain_, II. 161 (1851).

[864] Eng. trans., Vol. III. p. 591 ff.

[865] Confirmed by Werner Sombart, _The Jews and Modern Capitalism_
(Eng. trans.), p. 203: "The Talmud says: 'Kill even the best of the
Gentiles.'" The Zohar also says: "Tradition tells us that the best of
the Gentiles deserves death."--Section Vaïqra, folio 14_b_ (de Pauly's
trans., Vol. V. p. 42).

[866] Professor H. Graetz, _The History of the Jews_ (Eng. trans.), III.

[867] See my _World Revolution_, pp. 296-307. The misapprehension
referred to above may have arisen from the resemblance between the title
of my book and the series of articles which appeared in the _Morning
Post_ under the name of _The Cause of World Unrest_. In view of the fact
that these articles were on some points at variance with my own
theories, it seems hardly necessary to state that they were not my work.
As a matter of fact, I did not know of their existence until they were
in print, and later I contributed four supplementary articles signed by
my name.

[868] _Spectator_ for June 12, 1920.

[869] James Guillaume, _Documents de l'Internationale_, I. 131.

[870] _Correspondance de Bakounine_, published by Michael Dragomanov, p.

[871] _Le Juif_, etc., pp. 367, 368.

[872] _Revolution and War or Britain's Peril and her Secret Foes_, by
Vigilant (1913). A great portion of this book exposing the subtle
propaganda of Socialism and Pacifism is admirable; it is only where the
author attempts to lay all this to the charge of the Jesuits that he
entirely fails to substantiate his case.


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